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Revolution, Reaction and Reform in Ohio History
Selections from the Ohio Historical Society's Collections

Abolition - Underground Railroad
Ohio and its citizens played a crucial role in the reform of slavery and the Underground Railroad in the early 1800s.

Civil Rights: 1960s-Present
Ohioans, like the rest of the nation, reacted strongly to racial discrimination and the civil rights movement of the late twentieth century.

Civil War Medicine
The Civil War revolutionized many medical practices of the nineteenth century, including the use of anesthesia on the battlefield and new surgical techniques.

Environmental Protection and Agricultural Reform
The people of Ohio have reacted strongly in the fight to protect the environment in the twentieth century; some examples include agricultural reform, creation and maintenance of parks and natural habitats and the reform of waste disposal practices.

Government Reform
Ohio state and city governments have seen their share of reform in the past two centuries. Government reform has included a reaction to the "crime bosses" of the nineteenth century to voting reform in the twentieth century.

Labor Reform
Ohio has a strong history of labor reform in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including vocal worker unions and a variety of highly publicized labor strikes in the steel and automotive industries.

Religious Reform
Many early Ohio settlers came to the New World as a reaction against oppressive governments in their homelands. The Moravian Missionaries and the Separatist Society of Zoar are two well-documented examples of religious societies in early Ohio.

Student Reaction
Ohio campuses were the scene of many reactions to the Vietnam War, including the tragic Kent State University protests.

Temperance Movement
The alcohol prohibition movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century had a groundswell of support in Ohio. Groups such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union (W.C.T.U.) and the Anti-Saloon League had large Ohio memberships and were very influential on a national and state level.

Welfare Reform
A nationwide reaction to welfare reform was also seen in Ohio, especially during protests at the state capitol in the 1960s.

Women's Rights
Large numbers of men and women in Ohio were active in the women's suffrage movement and voting reform of the early twentieth century.

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