DEATH OF CHIEF JUSTICE WAITE--GROUNDS FOR LIBERAL
PENSION POLICY -- CHARACTER OF CONKLING -- NOM-
INATION OF HARRISON -- PRISON CONGRESS AT BOSTON
-- INTEREST IN STATE UNIVERSITY -- DEATH OF
GENERAL SHERIDAN -- CINCINNATI CENTENNIAL EX-
POSITION -- COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF LOYAL LEGION
-- MARCH-NOVEMBER, 1888
MARCH 23, 1888.--In Toledo this morning walking in
the street, I met Kramer, formerly of this town, who
told me of the death of the Chief Justice. Verified it by tele-
phone to his brother Richard.
Toledo has recently lost many valuable and greatly esteemed
citizens. But none so beloved, so eminent, and possessing such
a combination of wonderful powers, high qualities, and attain-
ments [as] the friend we have now lost. He was of large and
strong intellect. He was great-hearted, warm-hearted, and of
generous, just, and noble sentiments and feelings. He was
thoroughly trained and schooled from his youth up. He was
in the best sense a learned man and a well educated man. He
had saving common sense, untiring industry, and great energy.
He was always cheerful, easily made happy by others, and with
amazing powers and a never-failing disposition to make others
happy. He was the best beloved man that ever lived in this part
of the United States. His death is felt as a personal loss and
grief by a multitude of people in every walk of life from the
humblest to the most exalted.
As a Chief Justice I do not venture to speak of him. In other
circles ample attention, justice, will be done to his conduct in his
great office and to the services which it enabled him to render
to his country. Here we must ever think of Morrison R. Waite
as a man; a man so altogether worthy that no title, no dignity,
no office, and no opportunities could add to the respect, admira-
tion, and love in which he is held--simply as a citizen, neighbor,
DEATH OF CHIEF JUSTICE WAITE 381
and friend--by all who have known him long and well. Here
in Toledo the memory of Morrison R. Waite will be ever cher-
ished with undying affection.--Hail and farewell!
March 24. Saturday.--Webb came last evening. We call
him our "Anarchy." He is full of fun and life. A relief after
our sadness. But we return to it. Dear, dear "Mott Waite,"
how beloved he was!
SPIEGEL, March 25, 1888.
MY DARLING:--The death of Chief Justice Waite after a
few days' sickness -- pneumonia -- was a shock and fills us with
gloom and sorrow. Mrs. Waite had just gone to California. She
is now on her mournful journey home. She returns to Toledo
direct. The Chief Justice will probably be buried at Toledo this
If so, we go to the wedding of Lucy Cook Monday and will be
absent about a week. Your coming home is a joy indeed. To
be sure, our weather is now wintry enough. A deep snow for
three days, and now a sleet such as broke down our trees four
or five years ago! But you will have a warm welcome in any
weather. It is not probable that I can go to New York in time
for your arrival. If it can be managed, Rutherford will meet
you in New York at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, or as far out at
sea as he can get. Of course, we cannot say positively who will
meet you, but it seems now as if it would be Rutherford. . . .
We long for you. Our best wishes and love to the general,
Emily, Lilly, and all the young people.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
March 29. Thursday.--The funeral of Chief Justice Waite at
Toledo. With Sherman, Evarts, Allison, George, and Gray,
Senators, lunched at the Boody House. An interesting conver-
sation. With Justices Miller [and] Harlan and with Evarts
382 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
rode out to Birchard's new home. A pleasant visit for Lucy
P. M. With the justices at the funeral in Trinity Church.
Justice Lamar spoke [to me] in warm terms of my dealing with
the Southern and other questions--of the success of my Ad-
ministration. "One part of your Administration all approve.
Mrs. Hayes will be always remembered as the perfect hostess
at the White House. If you go South you will be warmly wel-
comed everywhere. Mrs. Hayes must come with you. She has
a warm place in our affections." All very pleasant to hear.
Rode to the church with Justices Miller and Harlan. After
Dr. Walbridge's funeral address and the other exercises, Justice
Miller said they would not go to the graveyard. "Take our
carriage," said he. This I did. Not wishing to be alone I asked
a policeman to get me company. Two polite and intelligent
young men were put in the carriage. They were very civil and
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, April 3, 1888.
MY DEAR S--: -- It is not likely that Mrs. Hayes will accom-
pany me to New York. Your friendly suggestion is appreciated.
But it is scarcely to be expected that I will have time for "com-
pany dinner." With you I can spend a good sitting.
No more public life for me! I will retain the place of the
one man who having reached the Presidency would not seek or
accept a second term. I hear of the governorship occasionally but
uniformly reply that under no circumstances would I take the
nomination, and this is final.
With best wishes, sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
HON. WILLIAM HENRY SMITH.
April 13, 1888. Friday.--We reached home from our Ohio
Centennial journey last evening from Cleveland after a most
[Monday, April 2], to Columbus. Dined with Laura. Thence
Lucy to Chillicothe that evening. I spent the night at the Park
A LIBERAL PENSION POLICY 383
Hotel and at a banquet with Professor Lazenby, Dr. Townsend,
Colonel Brigham, et al., of the experiment station with the new
superintendent or director, Mr. Thorne. The Pugh election that
night. Tuesday to Chillicothe. Wedding of Lucy H. Cook to
Mr. McCandless, of Allegheny City. A lovely affair.
Wednesday with Maggie Gilmore on the hill. Dined with Joe
McKell and Aunt McKell in the evening. Thursday to Marietta.
Spent the days of the centennial with Douglas Putnam, viz.,
until Monday, 9th. A model New England family of the old
style. Senator George F. Hoar and other guests. The Senator
was capital company and made a solid and perfect oration. Mon-
day, 9th, . . . to Wellington. At American House all night
in Wellington. Visited M. E. church in the morning (Mr.
Houghton) and reached, with Warner, Cleveland about 10:30
A. M. At Mrs. I. Austin's 10th [of] April. April 11 at
Forest City House, Cleveland, all night. Presided over the
Loyal Legion banquet and made a satisfactory speech
"impromptu." Ditto, after Hoar in Marietta.
Altogether a very satisfactory trip of ten days with Lucy, who
was everywhere the life of all circles, especially at Cleveland
with the Loyal Legion. The singer, Miss Agnes Huntington,
and Mrs. Ford were the musical attractions of the evening at
Loyal Legion banquet.
Quote Judge Burnett on the treatment of the Revolutionary
soldiers. Poverty furnished then an excuse -- at least a pretext
--for the ingratitude of the then young and feeble republic.
But now with a surplus! I wish there was [were] half as much
desire to do our full duty by the soldier as there is to take care
of the surplus money in the treasury!
Father Bauer was right. The man who is accepted as a sol-
dier, signs his enlistment and takes the oath, unless he forfeits
it by bad conduct which can be proved, is thenceforth the ward
of the republic, as he is the lifeguard of its safety, and must
be taken care of. Suppose he lacks thrift, economy, sobriety,
industry. He is part of our standing army. I speak for no
particular measure. I speak for the spirit, the sentiment, the
principle, which should govern us.
384 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
April 14. Saturday.--Senator Hoar was very interesting.
Humorous anecdotes bubbled up naturally in his conversation.
Good nature, kindness, friendliness, and the savor of integrity
and patriotism pervaded his talk.
One story on his brother, Judge Hoar, of Concord, illustrated
the strength of local feeling. Lexington claims the honor of
the first bloodshed of the Revolution. Concord also. Riding
in the cars home from the Cincinnati Convention the judge said:
"It was very hard to vote against Blaine. He came to the
Concord Centennial and attended all of its exercises, and he
never went near Lexington."
April 15. Sunday.--Wrote a great many letters. The awful
heap gathered during our centennial trip is almost disposed of.
Heard Dr. Barnes preach a capital sermon.
FREMONT, OHIO, April 16, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR:--Your letter finds me overburdened with de-
mands on my time. I rejoice with you in your restored health,
and in the encouraging prospects of your noble work. I trust
you will fully recover and that your enterprise will be altogether
As to the name of your industrial work, I prefer to see the
names of generous givers to the endowment fund honored in
naming institutions. I have just received a letter from Dr.
Haygood in which he furnishes abundant ground for thankful-
ness in view of the progress making in his educational work.
With all good wishes.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
REV. W. D. GOODMAN.
April 19. Thursday.--Chief Justice Waite had a large, warm
heart, filled full of love for his fellow men. He had a sound
head in which a good conscience and a wise judgment were at
home. He had a cheerful and friendly spirit that easily made
captive even the most gloomy and coldest of those around him.
THE CHARACTER OF CONKLING 385
His industry and persevering ability to work without ceasing
long hours after others were wearied and worn out, made him
a matchless lawyer in difficult and responsible work.
Conkling's death calls up the past. He was talented and able
in the debates of public life; but, as I see it, his place is largely
due to his manipulation of men and patronage. He had no
measures, made no memorable speeches, but his fidelity to sup-
porters and skill in flattery, with an impressive presence and
manner, were his chief points. An inordinate egotism and self-
will were too much for his judgment. If he could not rule, he
would not "play." He was unfaithful to his party whenever he
could not control it. Examples are numerous. He failed in
1876 after his disappointment at Cincinnati. A man with less
vanity would have known that he had no chance there. After
the election, during the contest over the disputed results, he
was again untrue, but lacked the courage to carry out his wishes.
In the Potter Committee business he intrigued with the common
enemy. He had to be pacified in the Garfield campaign. After
the election he required control of New York appointments as a
condition of support of the Garfield Administration. After his
defeat in New York due [to] -- brought about by his "mono-
mania on the subject of his own importance," he was out of
political life until the convention at Chicago in 1884, when he
allowed it to be understood that he would support Blaine. But
when the election came on he, as usual, opposed his party, it
being no longer under his control.
After I went to Washington and after the delivery of the
inaugural, he was profuse in admiration of my opinions and
course--this to me personally,--until the announcement of
my Cabinet, when he became hostile, never again calling on me.
We never spoke with each other afterwards. He wanted Platt
for Postmaster-General. That was the condition of his support.
April 21.--Captain Alexis Cope, the secretary of the board
of trustees of the Ohio State University, an intelligent and
efficient man, here. Good company. The university to be im-
proved and popularized. Farmers, mechanics, and military men
to be especially considered in the university! Good.
386 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
FREMONT, OHIO, April 22, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR:--I have just read the debate on the election
of 1876. You have done an excellent work. You have vindi-
cated the truth of history. It is to me a great gratification, and
adds largely to the obligations I am under to you. I thank
you for it. This is probably the end of the debate. Your use
of the speeches of McEnery and Eustis was indeed crushing.
If anybody renews it, and you think it worth while to renew it,
there is a strong line of retort.
1. Tilden was not nominated again in 1880 because the
cipher dispatches and the attempted Oregon fraud were traced
to his door.
2. The Democrats did nominate Hancock who was the first
officer in uniform to call on me, and who always in public and
private recognized the validity of the election.
3. The Republicans nominated Garfield, who as a visiting
statesman to Louisiana, reported to Hayes and to the country
that the State was legally, fairly, and equitably carried for
4. Garfield as one of the Electoral Commission decided the
case for Hayes.
The country endorsed him. But for the Morey forgery every
Northern State would have voted for him.
With thanks, sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN.
April 24.--Last evening I made a speech, on the invitation
of the school board of Fremont, on manual training with a view
to its introduction into the public schools here. The city hall
was well crowded by an attentive and intelligent audience. At
the close of my address, Mr. F. S. White, perhaps our ablest
and wealthiest citizen, moved a vote of thanks to the speaker,
and "that it is the sense of this meeting that the school board
take immediate steps to introduce manual training into the public
schools next fall." A standing vote was unanimously in favor
of the motion.
MANUAL TRAINING FOR FREMONT 387
April 25. Wednesday.--We go--Lucy and I--to Toledo
this morning to be present at the encampment of the G. A. R.
for Ohio. I am a delegate from my post, but have no special
duty or purpose beyond my own satisfaction in meeting com-
rades of the war, and the little I can add to their enjoyment.
This I feel to be an agreeable duty.
My speaking is unimportant. Five or ten minutes. The ideas
I will get off are the neglect of the Nation to provide for her
defenders. In the war of the Revolution, in the present case,
the States have felt compelled to take care of them.
Don't quote as precedents that govern the Revolutionary War.
The old heroes were shamefully neglected. Don't refer to the
soldiers of the War of 1812 or the Mexican War. But consider
the pledges given, the sacrifices made, the service rendered, and
April 27. -- Received when I spoke Wednesday evening with
great warmth. Cheering all through and at the close "three
cheers and a tiger." Again well received Thursday evening. A
very harmonious meeting of the annual department encampment.
Judge O'Neal, of Lebanon, commander, a prisoner of war,
had all of the experience of war in every form which could
befall any man in the Union army except death itself.
SPIEGEL GROVE, April 28, 1888.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--I have been greatly gratified to learn
from Mr. Mack, of Sandusky, that the trustees of the Soldiers'
Home intend to appoint you as the head of the home. I do
hope, for many reasons, that you will find it consistent with
your interest and inclination to accept the position. At first
there will, no doubt, be a good deal of care and labor connected
with it. But with your ability as a disciplinarian as shown in
the war, I think you will soon find it easy to master the situa-
tion. Would it not be well to make us a visit and look over
the ground with me?
GENERAL M. F. FORCE, RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
388 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
FREMONT, OHIO, April 28, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR:--I have been greatly interested in your debate.
Any continuation of it will be eagerly read. But I don't wan't
you to get into any controversy which will be used against you
at Chicago. No doubt the body of the party want to see the
remains of the rebellious spirit firmly rebuked and promptly
met. It seems to me as if I had missed the beginning of the
debate. I have the 19th and 20th Record. Was there an earlier
Chicago grows more interesting daily with your leadership
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN.
SPIEGEL, April 29, 1888. Sunday.
MY DARLING:--Your letters make us happy. As long as
you are in New York I feel that you are almost at home. We
can easily reach you and hear from you, and many good friends
of your father and mother are near you. We gladly leave the
question of your remaining until I come the middle of next
month to you. The doctor's advice is to be duly heeded. You
will have no better opportunity than now to make a perfect job
of the surgery needed. . . .
We love you ever so much, especially the elderly person.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
May 5. Saturday.--Returned from Cincinnati via Welling-
ton last evening. A capital visit to Cincinnati. Stayed at the
Burnet House. The [Loyal Legion] banquet was well attended.
The finest in all respects we have had. General Sherman pre-
sided in his characteristic, offhand way. Speeches good. Mine
unusually well received.
SLATER BOARD MEETING 389
May 13. Sunday.--I go to New York tomorrow to attend
the annual meeting of the Slater board and to meet Fanny and
bring her home with me.
FIFTH AVENUE HOTEL, May 16, 1888.
MY DARLING: -- I reached here at eight last evening and
found Fanny at 41 and 42 plump, blooming, and good, ready to
welcome me. She had been in about two hours. All agreeable.
Met Mr. Dodge on train, got President Gilman's card and a
note from Dr. Haygood. So we can begin [the Slater board
meeting] this morning, I suppose. I hope to get off in time to
reach home Saturday as I proposed.
I send a sheet of the Tribune. On one side is Bishop (?)
Taylor's report on his African work. One of the sharp questions
to come [up] in the [Methodist Episcopal General] Conference.
The other side has a bright criticism of Donnelly's book on the
Shakespeare-Bacon craze which may interest Birchard.
I hope to keep away from the Conference. Indeed I will not
get into its clutches. I may go to see it.
Be happy! As happy as you are good will do.
MRS. HAYES, R.
May 17. Thursday.--Our Slater meeting was interesting,
harmonious, and businesslike. All things are in good trim. The
report of Dr. Haygood shows the work to be going forward
prosperously. It was resolved to have a committee of three
select a school at Atlanta to aid more largely than heretofore in
the special interest of manual training by showing how far that
department of education among the negroes may be made self-
sustaining. As educational work merely, it is conceded that
learners must go on from one trade to another as soon as the
first is reasonably well learned. While for money-making they
must keep at the same work for much longer periods so as to
get the benefit of skill already acquired.
390 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
After the adjournment, I visited with Dr. Haygood the In-
dustrial Training Normal school at Number 9 University Place
in care of Dr. Butler. Both of us were much interested. They
charge sixty dollars per year and thirty dollars per month for
pupils; that is, the first for tuition and the last for board and
May 18. Friday.--Called on Mrs. General Grant. A cor-
dial interview. Introduced to her sister, Mrs. Dent. An agree-
able talk on all matters of interest to her family and ours. The
wretched business with Badeau was shown up. Called, after-
noon, on Mrs. Parsons. She was out. On General and Miss
Sherman. A pleasant visit. Fanny rode with Dr. Bosworth;
a fine ride in the park. I went into the empty Metropolitan
Opera House; found difficulty in getting out; Conference not
Dined with Mr. and Mrs. [Melvil] Dewey in their beautiful
flat. His advanced views were pleasantly talked over; libraries,
spelling reform, etc., etc.
May 28. Monday.--My old commander, General Sheridan,
is in a very critical condition. My relations with him were not
intimate, but sufficiently so to know him well. He was a most
satisfactory commander to serve under. He was always alert,
determined, and enterprising. He, as I have often said, was
emphatically our battle general. My speech before the Society
of the Army of West Virginia at Portsmouth in 1886 was a fair
statement of his qualities.
May 30--Memorial Day. Good weather. The ceremonies
passed off pleasantly in all respects. In the forenoon commit-
tees strewed flowers on the soldiers' graves. In the afternoon
the G. A. R. ceremony took place at the monument, Fort Steph-
enson Park. The crowd of decently dressed and orderly people
made a handsome display. After this the crowd went over to
the court-house park where music and singing and the address
of Captain [Isaac F.] Mack were the events. Captain Mack's
speech was exceptionally good. I made a very short talk and
read Lincoln's Gettysburg speech.
MR. CLEVELAND RENOMINATED 391
Called on Mr. and Mrs. Raikes. Mr. Raikes is pastor of the
Episcopal church. An Englishman, hearty, patriotic, and
sensible. He is of a good family. Fine portraits and the snuff
box (silver and large) of an admiral show the ancestors to have
been of "blue blood." But better far is his genuine character.
Mrs. Raikes shares these good traits also.
June 8. Friday.--The nomination of Cleveland and Thur-
man at St. Louis is announced. Thurman's nomination hurts the
Democrats in the doubtful State of Indiana; is therefore, per-
haps, not "good politics." But it is pleasant to see that his
independent and honorable course in the trial of the ballot-box
frauds at Columbus has not driven Judge Thurman from his
June 10. Sunday.--Mr. Barnes gave the picture of "Inno-
cence," the child, and "Guilt," the murderer.
The points in prisons, crimes, etc., are, 1. Prevention. 2.
Reformation. 3. Place the incorrigible, the professional, where
they will do no harm--convicts for life, earning by labor their
FREMONT, June 11, 1888.
MY DEAR WILLIAM HENRY: -- Thanks for Gorman's article.
I have seen notices of it, but would have missed it but for
It is well written and contains many facts. Cleveland was
so swallowed up in his own egotism that the whole world around
him was unseen. True to his own desires meant fidelity to
party--to duty--to country. His admirers shared largely in
his own delusions.
I have not seen the scandalous pamphlet about the President.
Is it believed by insiders?
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
P. S.--At the Portsmouth reunion 1886, I roughly sketched
the salient points of Sheridan's military career. -- H.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH.
392 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
June 22. Friday.--Absent from home a full week. The
13th, Wednesday, with Lucy to Cleveland. Found Fanny at
Mrs. Austin's. All attended the double Garfield weddings
Thursday, 14th, at Mentor, viz., Harry Garfield to Miss Mason,
and Mollie to Mr. Brown (Joseph Stanley).--[The] 15th, I
went to Delaware. Reached President Payne's in time to attend
the evening gathering in the chapel and make a short talk to
them [the students]. One point made: "Idleness recruits the
ranks of misfortune, of failure, of vice, and crime. Industry
recruits the ranks of success, of achievement, of high and noble
[The] 16th, Saturday, early, drank abundantly at the dear
old spring. Worked with the board of trustees. Placed on
committee of six or seven to nominate a new president.
[The] 17th, President Payne delivered baccalaureate. Strong,
but no, or very little, personal reference. Farewells, of course,
to citizens, students, and class. [The] 18th to Columbus. At
once met the board [of the Ohio State University] at Captain
Alexis Cope's office. Godfrey, Wing and Booth; finally also
Perkins and Colonel Brigham. A little rebellion of the senior
class -- easily settled. A lack of tact in our good president.
[The] 19th, a pleasant visit with Laura and the Fullertons. Left
for Toledo with Colonel Brigham. A pleasant night with Mary
and Birchard. [The] 20th, home again. Lovely home, never
so homelike as this hot weather. The grove, green and fresh,
and the house, airy, cool, spacious. Found Lucy and Fanny
cheery and affectionate in their welcome.
My concern now is the danger of diabetes. . . . Have
used sugar to excess all my days. Must drop that and adopt
a diet suited to the complaint.
I am interested in the success of Sherman at Chicago. A
noble President he would make. It is probable he would prove
also available as a candidate because he is fittest. The others
named are good men. Harrison, Depew, Allison especially so.
The three ballots place Sherman ahead--249 [votes]. No other
one above 130, but this proves little.
MR. HARRISON NOMINATED 393
June 24. Sunday. -- The Republican convention adjourned
until Monday. Depew withdrew in a handsome speech. On the
last ballot yesterday Sherman was still slightly ahead--224 to
Harrison, 223 or 213. New York went to Harrison for the most
part. General Harrison would probably be a good candidate --
possibly the best; possibly a very excellent candidate. His an-
cestry would tell. He is a soldier; he is in a doubtful State;
his civil record is good; he is a firm, sound man; his personal
character is clear and high.
The danger is Blaine. After his letters, to nominate him
would be a mistake. The acceptance now would seem like a
trick. The charge of a lack of sincerity and integrity would
stick worse than ever.
June 25. Monday.--Read quite fully the proceedings at
Chicago. While I think it very unwise to nominate Blaine
again, those who wish it at Chicago have certainly thus far acted
with good sense and entire fairness, so far as I can see. They
seem to give all opponents a fair hearing and to aim to nomi-
nate their favorite only when it is shown that no other can get
a majority. If to this they add the condition that all other can-
didates or their friends consent to his nomination, I do not see
but he is relieved from all committals to the contrary and may
be supported heartily by all Republicans.
If McKinley is nominated it will be in order for me to con-
gratulate him with "We're tenting tonight on the old camp
Harrison nominated on the eighth ballot. Majority large. He
is received here with much satisfaction -- yes, with enthusiasm.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, June 24 , 1888.
MY DEAR GENERAL: -- Mrs. Hayes joins in heartiest congratu-
lations and regards to you and Mrs. Harrison. Very few house-
holds rejoice more sincerely than mine. We were attached to
Sherman and loyal to his desires, but your nomination covers
a host of points. Encouragement and determination will spread
394 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Do not--of course you will not--think of replying to this
hasty note from
Your friend, sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
GENERAL BENJAMIN HARRISON,
June 26. Tuesday. -- The Harrison and Morton nominations
are sound politics. They are likely to be very popular and
strong. Enthusiasm will begin in Indiana, a partisan State, usu-
ally close. The people give much time to politics. Harrison
will stir them up. Great meetings will be held. The spirit will
extend to other States. A lively campaign all over with the
chances pretty even, but inclining to the Republicans.
Speaking of the facts of the disputed election of 1876 an
article, presumably written by Curtis, concludes:
"Harper's Weekly held then and holds now that there had
been so much intimidation, bribery, fraud, and suppression, that
it was absolutely impossible to know what the vote really was,
and that under the circumstances the only way to avoid civil
convulsion was to agree upon such a scheme of settlement as
was adopted. Its adoption and the peaceful carrying out of the
decision, was one of the greatest triumphs of patriotism in our
annals."--Harper's Weekly, June 23, 1888.
FREMONT, OHIO, June 26, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR:--You have no time for long letters. I wish
merely to congratulate you very heartily, and to send to Mrs.
Morton the kind regards and best wishes of Mrs. Hayes and
Your nomination was good politics, and is specially grati-
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE LEVI P. MORTON,
MR. HARRISON NOMINATED 395
FREMONT, OHIO, June 27, 1888.
MY DEAR SHERMAN:--You know how I and Mrs. Hayes
and all of my household feel about the Chicago result. We like
Harrison, of course, and think the ticket "good politics," in the
sense of availability. But you were so clearly entitled to it by
service and fitness, and our personal feelings were so enlisted
that we cannot think of it without great disappointment. I try
to find comfort in the reflection that it has become usage in our
country that the man of great and valuable service in civil life
must be content to leave the Presidency to the less conspicuous
and deserving. In your case the one fact that Indiana was
doubtful and Ohio sure compelled the adverse decision. The
first statesman of the land can't be nominated when this con-
sideration is not in his favor if the contest is close.
We are surprised and mortified by the conduct of Luckey. I
know him well and was assured of his fidelity to you. I don't
understand it. Mrs. Hayes joins me in special regards to Mrs.
Sherman and yourself. Sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN.
FREMONT, OHIO, June 27, 1888.
MY DEAR JONES:--So our friend Sherman failed. It was in
accordance with precedent, and was probably "good politics."
The man of large and conspicuous public service in civil life
must be content without the Presidency. Still more, the avail-
ability of a popular man in a doubtful State will secure him the
prize in a close contest against the first statesman of the coun-
try whose State is safe in any event. The ticket is a wise one.
Our Democratic friends will find it no picnic to beat it.
JUDGE T. C. JONES, R. B. HAYES.
FREMONT, June 27, 1888.
MY DEAR MAJOR:--I congratulate you heartily. Depew be-
haved handsomely. He left the convention with enhanced repu-
396 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
tation. But who else was so fortunate? You gained gloriously.
The test was a severe one, but you stood it manfully. It was
finely done. A better crown than to have been nominated.
The old story was reenacted. . . .
There were ambitious men near you at Chicago. That, of
course. Men in political life must be ambitious. But the surest
path to the White House is his who never allows his ambition
to get there to stand in the way of any duty, large or small.
The man who is guided by ambition alone, who acts from
policy, "cannot somehow sometimes always tell."
My old friend Judge Johnson used to say, "The Presidency
is unlike the Kingdom of Heaven,--those who seek shall never
Since 1868, twenty years ago, [Republicans] have not been
so united as they are now.
I could not help telling you how my young hero looked to
his old friend at a distance. Sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
MAJOR WILLIAM MCKINLEY,
June 29. Friday.--Harrison and Morton seem to please in
all quarters. No such unity among Republicans in the support
of any ticket since 1868, twenty years ago. In 1872 Grant's un-
fortunate Administration had alienated thousands--Greeley,
Sumner, Depew, and a host. In 1876 the hard times and the
Greenback craze took off thousands, making Ohio even and
other Western States doubtful. Besides Conkling's disappoint-
ment sent him to his tent in a fit of sulk. In 1880, again, Conk-
ling was sullen and hostile with Stalwart followers until the
canvass was nearly finished. Besides this, Garfield's record,--
Credit Mobilier and DeGolyer, etc. -- was a load. In 1884
Blaine's record drove off thousands. Now all are content, at
least, with Harrison and most are enthusiastic.
June 30. Saturday. -- Mr. Niles, "a gentleman who has read
and travelled," dined with me today. Through his wife, a Miss
James, daughter of John H. James, late of Urbana, he has a
PRISON CONGRESS AT BOSTON 397
large landed estate near Toledo on the lake shore. He lives
there in Black Swamp--the only great swamp which has not
an acre of real swamp in it. No springs in the swamp; no
swamp without springs. I must visit him and become acquainted
with him and his family. He is liberal, cultured, and religious.
Worth some effort to know intimately. The "better brethren"
who have seen the Vatican library and treasures and who have
walked sixty miles a day across the Appenines--only one day
at that rate--are to be esteemed in this level country,--level
society as well as scenery.
July 1, 1888.--Mr. John W. Patterson of Brooklyn, for-
merly of Tiffin (1826 to 185--), blind for twelve years, called
with his assistant Miss Potter Saturday. He is the most cheer-
ful and hopeful blind man I have met. Now seventy-six years
old -- (golden wedding celebrated five years ago), he is an in-
teresting and companionable old gentleman.
July 4.--Have spent the whole morning slowly hammering
out a speech for Boston [National Prison Congress]. So-so
only, but two-thirds done at one sitting.
July 5. Thursday.--I gave [the finishing touch to] my Bos-
ton talk--a little "communistic" in its tendency, the "privileged
class" will say. But I quote largely on this topic from such
high authorities as Webster and Horatio Seymour.
July 12. Thursday. Boston.--At the Tremont House, as
it is called here. Left home 7:30 A. M. train yesterday. A
good time [on trip]; reached here 9:50 A. M.
Here in Boston -- the first of the prison people! A day on
my hands. So much to see. What first? Probably it should
TREMONT HOUSE, BOSTON, July 14, 1888.
MY DARLING:--Lovely cool weather. Fine quarters, good
company, nothing lacking but you. With Wines, Millikin, and
Judge Wayland yesterday afternoon visited the Female Re-
formatory of Mrs. Johnson. All creditable. But her special
398 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
pride was her dairy. One hundred pounds of butter--was it
a day or a week? And her dozen or fifteen Jerseys, one Alder-
ney, and as many more grade. Today in the afternoon is the
card reception, and tonight the speaking.
All love to all and to you the special affection of your
July 15. Sunday. -- With Edward L. Pierce yesterday I rode
out to Cambridge--the loveliest college town! What a grand
arched room for the tablets of the heroes of the war! After-
noon, an excellent reception, well attended. A leading usher,
Mr. James, son of George James, of Zanesville. He was best
man at Stilwell's wedding.
Dr. Brooks' sermon on the text, "In jail and ye visited me"
was broad, sound, and strong. He speaks rapidly; voice a little
hoarse. Pierce says, "He is the preacher of the world."
TREMONT, BOSTON, July 15, 1888.
MY DARLING:--All has gone off in the best possible way--
the reception, the meeting and speeches last evening, and all.
Nothing wanting. Your absence is a notable exception. So
sorry you didn't come. Never read a speech so well. It was
received most flatteringly.
Pierce took me to Cambridge in fine style yesterday. Today
Phillips Brooks. Lunch with Mrs. Homans, and then to Mr.
Winthrop's to tea. He sends his carriage for Dr. Green and
Very happy. Much love, ever,
P. S.--Treated well by all the papers.
PRISON CONGRESS AT BOSTON 399
Tremont House, July 17. Tuesday. -- All goes well with the
Prison Congress. Met [yesterday] in the hall of the House of
Representatives -- a most convenient and suitable place. Good
ventilation, good for hearing well, etc., etc.
The meeting was interesting. The labor question up. Espe-
cial reference to the O'Neal Bill in Congress. Passed a resolu-
tion on the absolute need in all prisons of skilled and remunera-
tive labor. A superintendent of [the] Southern Prison of
Indiana, Mr. Patton, a fluent, windy, and endless speaker, under-
took to hold the floor in spite of the five-minute rule. He was
persistent when called to order, but I gently and firmly said:
"The gentleman from Indiana will take his seat." He continued
standing. I ignored the fact and in a rapid but orderly way
went on with the business, the meeting applauding!
P. M. On train through Lexington to Concord, visiting the
fine prison of Colonel Gardiner Tufts, the Concord Reforma-
tory. Returned direct to the Hall of the House 8 P. M. and
went on with the record. Mr. Brooker, of South Carolina, made
a good talk in a quiet way.
This afternoon with Edward L. Pierce to his home in
Milton. Drove over this lovely suburb. Mrs. Pierce and Mary
with us. Trees, ocean, hills.
July 22. Sunday. -- Home again. The Boston visit and the
Prison Congress altogether agreeable. Met old friends, made
new ones. And most cordially treated by all. The work of the
[Prison Association] goes on gaining steadily. The Boston jail
and other institutions of Massachusetts in commendable condi-
tion. Models for others.
As I left the chair the last day, I emphasized as among the
things to be remembered:-- 1. Dr. Brooks' sermon. 2. The
permanent imprisonment of the incorrigible old offenders. 3.
The better treatment by the public in all ways of the police, and
Reached home last night. I recall especially Mrs. Homans,
Mr. R. C. Winthrop, General Dewey, Colonel Russell of Charles-
ton Prison, especially Edward L. Pierce, Governor Claflin. Of
course our old associates are not to be omitted -- Professor
400 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Wayland of Yale, Mr. Wines, Major McClaughry, Dr. Byers,
and a host of others.
My address and other speeches were well received and the
Boston audience greeted me beautifully. A happy time.
July 24. -- To Lakeside. Spoke to a fair audience in the audi-
torium. General Leggett, Dr. Buckley, and others in the intelli-
gent audience. Offhand and satisfactory.
July 26. Thursday. -- Invited by the Society of the Army of
Tennessee to respond at the banquet to the toast, "The Presi-
dent." Can I make a satisfactory ten-minute talk on this? I
would strenuously urge a single term of six years. Now, the wis-
dom of the fathers has given to the President a host of motives
to be honest and patriotic. Presidents in the past have always
been better than their adversaries have predicted. Take, of
course, only those who are so far removed by time that no one's
sensibilities will be shocked or even touched by allusions to them,
--say, from Washington to Jackson inclusive. All were free
from any the least taint of personal corruption. All were hon-
est men. All were in the best sense gentlemen. Compare them
with the chief magistrates of the nations of Europe. Quote Jef-
ferson's opinion--"could not be elected a vestryman in Amer-
July 28. Saturday.--Will give a sketch of Chief Justice
Waite at the meeting in Fort Wayne August 15 and will add
some sentences on the interest that clings to Fort Wayne; next
to Detroit, the most interesting spot in this part of the old North-
July 31. Tuesday. -- I go to Columbus today in reference to
president for Ohio Wesleyan and a professor for Ohio State
August 1. Wednesday. -- Met at D. S. Gray's railroad office,
High Street, near the Columbus depot. Present, Chairman Gray,
Trimble, McDowell, Lyon, Hayes. After hearing letters it was
plain that no one named for president was satisfactory to a clear
majority of the committee. Phelps preferred to any other.
DEATH OF GENERAL SHERIDAN 401
Agreed to report not able to find a candidate and to suggest post-
ponement one year and Vice-President McCabe to act as presi-
dent in the meantime. Adjourned. The board called [to meet]
at Delaware the 16th of August.
August 2. -- With Captain Cope to the Ohio State University.
President Scott opposed to the German influence -- beer and Sun-
day -- in the faculty. Therefore opposed to Bleile as successor
of Tuttle. Met Bleile, a bright, modest, intelligent scholar.
August 6. Monday. -- General Sheridan died last night at
10:30 P. M. -- suddenly, rather. Sent Mrs. Sheridan [a des-
patch] as follows: "By the death of your illustrious husband our
country loses her great battle general. All who served under
him suffer with you. Mrs. Hayes joins me in deepest sympa-
I must send to Colonel John P. Nicholson instructions to issue
proper orders to the Companions of the Loyal Legion.
August 9. Thursday.--The death of Sheridan last Sunday
is the event of the week. I always speak of him as our best battle
general. He was able in all the exigencies of war, but in fight
he was specially great. He was cautious and courageous, enter-
prising and sagacious. Firm of purpose, confident of himself
and of his men, always ready to aid them, never leaving a sub-
ordinate to get out of his scrape.
August 13. Monday. -- I go today to Toledo. Thence tomor-
row up the Maumee to visit with General Poe and others the
places of historic interest and on Wednesday at Fort Wayne to
attend the meeting of the society over which I am to preside.
August 18. -- Monday evening left home for the Fort Wayne
meeting of the Maumee Valley Monumental Association. With
Birchard and Mary that evening. Tuesday morning in the car-
riage of ----- Schenck, coal dealer at Toledo, and General J. C.
Lee up the Maumee to old Fort Miami on the west bank of the
river a mile or more below Maumee
402 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
FREMONT, OHIO, August 18, 1888.
DEAR SIR:--I have no doubt the copy of my letter written
more than twenty years ago is correctly given, but I do not re-
call it. Having never used spectacles, I could not then or now
speak from experience as to the skill or work of opticians. What
was said was, as the printed letter shows, correct.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
August 26. Sunday.--The past week with Lucy at [the]
Twenty-third Reunion, Lakeside 21-23d. Thursday, 23d,
spoke at Erie County Harvest Picnic, Cedar Point, in the after-
noon, and at the school building [to] Erie County Teachers' In-
stitute in the evening. Industrial education the topic.
[The] 24th at home. [The] 25th, Saturday, with Mr. and
Mrs. Post, General and Mrs. Leggett, and thirty other gentlemen
and ladies, over to Middle Bass and called on General and Mrs.
General Harrison told me Blaine wrote him (or told him) that
my Letter of Acceptance was the best ever written. General
Harrison asked me to send it to him. This I have done today.
At the Twenty-third Reunion the presence of General Scam-
mon, of Chicago, Colonel Fisher, of Denver, and Dr. Jenkins, of
San Diego, gave us special pleasure. The singing and recitations
of Kimberley assisted by Major Palmer and Colonel -----, of
Cleveland, carried the affair through gloriously. Lucy and I
enjoyed it all.
Our friends with whom we dined and teaed at Sandusky, the
Post family, Mack and his wife (I. F.), and the rest were par-
I spoke of Sheridan, the "ride," etc.; also his stirring little
speech at Five Forks.
August 27. Monday. --- Fanny's merry [week-long] party be-
gins to break up. This morning Robert Neil Dickman, Herrick,
and A. R. Warner, all of Cleveland, leave us. A more joyous
party and time we have not had. Good singing of sacred, war,
THE SONS OF VETERANS 403
and college tunes and an abounding good nature has carried the
I am to speak twice at Columbus; once to the Sons of Vet-
erans and must think up my topic. 1. The work done by your
fathers can't be extolled beyond its merit. 2. The principles
and example of Lincoln. 3. The good name you have in your
keeping is a secred heritage which must carry you safely through
Next Thursday the Sandusky County Pioneer and Historical
Society meets. I will think up a little talk for that occasion also.
August 28. Tuesday.--This is the birthday of Lucy. She is
fifty-seven years old. Health good. Her good constitution pre-
serves her beauty. She has little down spells sometimes; but all
society, all sorts of people stimulate her to a fine flow of spirits
and she is always happy when she can make others happy.
FREMONT, OHIO, August 28, 1888.
DEAR COMRADE: -- Of course I recall the severe nature of your
service on the raid to Lewisburg, but not the details. The best I
can do is to write a personal letter to the Commissioner of Pen-
sions. I believe General Black wishes to do all he can lawfully
for the meritorious soldier. When you have made all the case
you can, let me know the number of your application and I will
write in your behalf.
We had a happy time at the reunion at Lakeside last week.
General Scammon was there.
With best wishes, sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
PHILO F. TWITCHELL,
EX-SOLDIER, 23D O. V. I.
August 30. Thursday. -- Our Pioneer meeting was unusually
well attended at the city hall. Excellent music and singing. . . .
S. A. Wildman, Esq., made a sound, good speech. Mine was
well received. Told the story of the sun, the moon, and Joshua
404 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
August 31. Friday.--Hazy but clearing. Getting dry. But
never a summer with such grass and leaves. Very few hot days,
but enough to give a great crop of corn. On the whole, the fin-
est summer I have known.
The climate of Ohio is perfect, considered as the home of an
ideal republican people. Climate has much to do with national
character--with the character of a people. The highest civiliza-
tion must reach all members of society. It must be one that re-
quires labor on [of] the people to secure food and shelter and
clothing. Hence the warm and luxurious climate of the tropics
which do not require for health or comfort labor or skill,
industry or economy, is not favorable to progress. If the cli-
mate is too severe, either too cold or too hot for labor in the open
air, the best society will not be found.
A climate which permits labor out-of-doors every month in
the year and which requires industry to secure comfort--to
provide food, shelter, clothing, fuel, etc.--is the very climate
which secures the highest civilization. No work, no civilization,
The climate which encourages industry is the climate of the high-
est civilization. The temperate zone, the productive soil, the va-
ried industry, -- these are the elements.
Habits of industry are formed by the necessity to work in or-
der to live with comfort and the encouragement to work by rea-
son of confidence that production and abundance are the sure
September 2, 1888. Sunday. -- Fanny's birthday. Born
twenty-one years ago this morning about 7 A. M. in Cincinnati,
at Walnut Hills. I returned the evening before from a week's
absence "on the stump" in the canvass -- my first candidacy for
governor. I spoke in the afternoon at Hillsboro. No train until
Monday. Four soldiers volunteered to take me to Loveland on
a handcar. There I took a train on the Little Miami reaching the
summer boarding-house of the family about 10 or 11 P. M. I
gave Fanny a check for one hundred dollars by way of present
on this happy occasion.
September 5. Columbus.--Came down Monday evening from
Toledo. Laura and the general waiting for me 11:30 P. M. A
OHIO CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION 405
good welcome. Rev. Dr. Jones, son of my friend Judge T. C.
Jones, of Delaware, here.
A fine time with W. D. Howells--as charming and bright as
ever, and more and more a man of wisdom and heart.
Yesterday with Governors Foraker, Brackett, and Lounsbury
(Massachusetts and Connecticut) to the review of the Ohio Na-
tional Guard and to the opening of the Centennial at [the] State
Two blunders only. No police to clear the reviewing stand,
and no sprinkling or weed cutting en route to the Fair Ground.
COLUMBUS, OHIO, September 5, 1888.
MY DARLING:--I have had two busy days. The speeches
were good -- the music excellent. Of course the soldier week
is the great time. I am to speak for the Sons of Veterans Mon-
day evening in the big tent and will have a busy time for three or
four days. You and Fanny are specially expected by Laura. You
should come as early as practicable Monday. If Scott wants to
come I can arrange for him, I think at Fullerton's. . . .
Howells left this afternoon. A good time so far.
September 6. Thursday.--Yesterday presided at the Colis-
eum. General Gibson, Lieutenant-Governor Brackett, of Massa-
chusetts, and Governor Lounsbury made good speeches in the
forenoon and Frank H. Hurd made a particularly fine one in the
afternoon. State Senator Palmer of Michigan, Big Rapids, re-
sponded in a patriotic address quoting all of the favorite lines of
Dined with Governor and Mrs. Foraker, the governors, their
blazing staffs, etc., etc. Meeting Howells and Hurd was the
event of the occasion so far. Riding with Hurd, out to the fair
406 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
grounds and return, alone in a ----, gave me an agreeable oppor-
tunity to know him. The impression is altogether favorable.
September 7. Friday.--I dined with Warden Coffin of the
Ohio Penitentiary. Present his wife and daughters, Phips,
Smead and wife, Murphy, the chaplain, and others. We had an
We saw the machinery where murderers are now executed.
Seven have been executed. The plan is better than the old one.
It is quietly done. Only a few, at the most about thirty or forty,
can witness [an execution]. It excites nobody outside of the list
permitted to attend. I think the time for capital punishment has
passed. I would abolish it. But while it lasts this is the best
I met among officers and guards a number of my old command,
one of the Twenty-third. They were cordial in their greeting.
This, of course. Smith Hirst, the generous Quaker who gave the
Slater fund three thousand dollars, has gone home. He lives at
I will call on Bishop Ireland, of Minnesota.
September 8. Saturday. -- I had a long talk with General Mc-
Millan, of Louisiana, formerly of Columbus. The old troubles
of 1876-7 in Louisiana were called up. I told him of the good
faith of Governor Nichols, Lamar, Hampton, and especially of
Gordon. Our only argument was on the wisdom and necessity
of letting bygones be bygones -- of entire amnesty for past polit-
ical offenses on all sides.
September 9. Sunday. -- Lucy and Fanny arrived last night,
their train from Toledo behind time more than an hour, a little
before midnight. No getting trunks that night. With some
trouble got them this morning. [We] attended church at the new
green stone Methodist Episcopal Church, our old congregation,
on Broad Street. Heard General Gibson for the first time in the
pulpit. Style almost identical with his stump and soldier speeches.
Text, "Thy kingdom come," from the Lord's prayer. It was a
hopeful, optimistic view of the progress of the Church. "When
a boy, one in fifteen were professing Christians, now four and
one quarter are in." Can this be so?
ARMY REUNION AT COLUMBUS 407
"Don't look down -- look up. Men who have the dyspepsia
look down and don't see the progress."
In the evening at the big tent of the Army of West Virginia
General Gibson preached to his comrades on David's advice, "Be
brave, show thyself a man." A soldier's sermon. Good.
September 14. Friday. -- Went in Governor Alger's private
car to the Cincinnati exposition in celebration of the centennial
with Governor and Mrs. Foraker, Governor Thayer, General
Belknap, Governor and Mrs. Alger, Colonel F. D. Grant and wife.
I escorted Mrs. Foraker, first to dinner at the Burnet [House],
then to the Music Hall where we were received by the president
of the exposition, Mr. Allison, and the mayor, [Mr.] Smith.
Governor Foraker was introduced. After a few words, he in-
troduced me, General Belknap, Alger, Governor Thayer, etc. I
said a few words only. Well received. Wonderful exposition.
Rode in the gondola -- one of the six -- with Mr. Howe of the
State Department. Called on Dr. and Mrs. Davis, Herron and
Will, and General and Mrs. Force and Mrs. Horton.
At the depot 9 to 11 P. M. No cars. Got one myself. Gave
the ladies--nine to a dozen--first berths and took what was
left after their husbands also were provided and got back to Co-
lumbus at 8 A. M. [of the] 15th.
[September 16]. Sunday. -- The great G. A. R. Encampment
and Reunion of the Army of West Virginia are over. Both
greatly successful. More army songs, less fine music, would have
improved them. But they were near perfection. Foraker made
many taking speeches. His talents, especially his versatility, are
remarkable. His wit is ready. A little too much tendency to
partisanship and to say sharp things that wound. He says his
speeches are suggested often by what he reads in the daily paper.
This accounts for their freshness. His talk before an audience
is often almost conversational. Always attractive. He is troubled
if he repeats in the presence of those who have heard what he
has said before. He is handsome-fine brown complexion, good
eyes, dark, an intellectual and manly look, fine figure, above med-
ium size. He has risen rapidly. He says when living out of
Cincinnati a few miles he made at his profession one thousand
408 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
one hundred dollars the first year there--soon it was up to ten
thousand dollars. Then nominated for governor; beaten by liquor
questions by Hoadly; then defeated Hoadly. Before he ran that
year his income was twenty-eight thousand dollars yearly. Em-
ployed at salary by fourteen railroads and other corporations.
Politics, a loss financially.
Heard the minister of Wesley Chapel--a good old-fashioned
sermon. Lovely church.
September 17. -- Bright and cool. We leave Columbus today
after the finest visit we have perhaps ever made here. Laura
and the general have been in their best condition of health, and
full of all attractive traits and ways.
September 18. Tuesday. -- Reached home via Toledo last eve-
ning with Lucy and Fanny from Columbus.
My old friend, Dr. La Q. Rawson, died last week and was
buried today. He was one of Uncle Birchard's nearest friends.
They came to Lower Sandusky together from Fort Ball (now
Tiffin) in 1827. Their friendship continued until death. The
doctor was descended from [the] Rev. Edward Rawson of Puri-
tan days in Massachusetts. He was a liberal in religion, but his
character, full of strong traits, was worthy of his lineage. The
family were long-lived. He died aged eighty-four and one day,
having been a sufferer from severe attacks many years.
September 19. Wednesday. -- Honorable J. C. Lee of Toledo,
secretary of the Maumee Valley Monumental Association, writes
me that the board of directors have elected me president. I ought
not to assume, loaded down as I am, any more burdens. But it
is one of my hobbies (viz., local history), and I replied, "If you
will do the work, I will hold your hat."
September 20. Thursday.--Scott R. left last evening for
Cornell University. My talk to him was, in substance: "Be a
good scholar if you can, but in any event be a gentleman in the
best sense of the word--truthful, honorable, polite, and kind,
with the Golden Rule as your guide. Do nothing that would
give pain to your mother if she knew it."
PEABODY BOARD MEETING 409
September 28. Friday. -- Home again after a delightful trip
with Lucy of five days to the Allegheny Centennial at Pittsburgh.
Nothing could be more charming. We enjoyed the music, Amer-
ican and army songs, the fireworks and gas gushers on the river,
the procession of veterans, the children's (two thousand four
hundred) chorus, etc., etc. Made three successful talks. One
on the main stand, the first day; the others at campfires, the last
evening. Received with unbounded enthusiasm on all occasions.
Very gratifying, indeed.
September 29. Saturday.--With Huntington, Adda, and
Rutherford drove about town. The new brick paving with the
grading and parking makes Birchard Avenue a fine street.
October 6, 1888. -- I returned from New York via Toledo last
evening. Left Lucy and Fanny at the Fifth Avenue Hotel.
We left home Monday, [the] first, eleven o'clock train, and
were in our rooms at the homelike hotel (rooms 41 and 42, our
old quarters) at 10:20 A. M. Tuesday.
Myron Herrick and wife were our travelling companions from
Cleveland. Mr. Lawrence, Webb's partner in the National Car-
bon Works at Cleveland, I met for the first time at the hotel.
They are thinking of setting up a plant in the vicinity of New
York. He is a good business man, intelligent and shrewd.
Mr. D. S. Gray, chairman of the committee on the presidency
of the Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, met us as we en-
tered the hotel and told me [the] Rev. Dr. Tubbs would meet
us at noon. We had an exceedingly agreeable interview with
Dr. Tubbs. The only drawback to the pleasure was the evident
impossibility of getting him to leave Drew Seminary and take the
presidency of Ohio Wesleyan. What a president he would be
at Delaware! Afternoon of second with Lucy to General Sher-
man's new home in New York. A hearty and warm welcome by
the general and his family.
Called afterwards at Mead's. A good reception and pleasant
hour with Mrs. Mead. Met at the Fifth Avenue Mr. Lawrence,
Governor and Mrs. Warmoth, the Goodloes, and other friends.
[On the] third of October. a harmonious meeting of the Pea-
body trustees. Elected the new Chief Justice in place of the old;
410 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
General Devens, vice Lyman, and Senator Gibson in place of
Manning (both of Louisiana). Banquet in the evening. Escorted
Mrs. Courtenay, wife of the new member from Charleston. Mr.
Winthrop delivered a fine eulogium on Chief Justice Waite at
the morning meeting.
Bishop Whipple told several good stories. One of the Scotch
Seceder, who said: "It is a saire thing that the only adherents
of the true faith now left are Sandy Thompson and me,--and
I am not so sicker about Sandy."
Lucy and Fanny very happy. Left New York on limited ex-
press, Thursday, 4th, at 10 A. M.--My birthday. Sixty-six
October 10. -- The owner of the Aldine at Philadelphia told me
here in the Burnet, Cincinnati, this morning that Tom Scott un-
der Cameron as Secretary of War bought muskets in Vienna at
two francs each and sold them to [the] Government at twelve
dollars to fifteen dollars each. Sanford and others in the deal.
October 12. Friday.--Reached home via Toledo about 6.40
P. M. on the Wheeling from Cincinnati after a most agreeable
visit of three days. At Toledo was shown into the room of Mary.
She was in bed looking cheerful and happy. By her side was the
new son, born that morning. Good features; darker than his
older brother--darker eyes. . . .
October 13. Saturday. -- Lucy and Fanny returned from New
York last night after about two weeks' absence. A good trip and
visit. They spent about five days with Charlie Mead, our favor-
ite cousin with a favorite wife and family.
The new grandson is not so much of a delight to Lucy as he
is to me. Her rejoicing is in the fact that the newcomer is not
October 18. Thursday. Philadelphia, Aldine Hotel.--I left
home Monday 8 A. M. Lake Shore to attend meeting of Com-
mandery-in-Chief of Loyal Legion. Dined at Cleveland with
Aunty Austin. Thence reached Pittsburgh at 7 P. M. The in-
evitable reporters found me--three. Sleeper to Philadelphia.
Reached here about 10 A. M. one or two hours behind time.
COMMANDER LOYAL LEGION 411
Found Lieutenant Thackara on train--son-in-law of General
Sherman, an agreeable and well informed travelling companion.
At Philadelphia, after breakfast, called at Loyal Legion head-
quarters, 723 Walnut Street. Thence to Nicholson's business
place. We at once entered into the affairs of the Loyal Legion.
He explained the conduct of Colonel Sheridan as to the death of
the general; that is, told what it was. The motives of his singu-
lar exclusion of the Loyal Legion from prominence are not
He told me of General Sheridan's gratification with my course
last year; how he often requested copies of my speech on his
nomination, etc., etc. Sheridan expected to be made Lieutenant-
General when Sherman was promoted at the end of the war.
Grant had so promised, but Sherman's friends in the Senate
would have only one. "Sherman," he said, "was only for him-
I explained to Nicholson why I preferred either Sherman or
Schofield for Commander-in-Chief, viz., as a military order,
we should have at its head the man of largest military repu-
tation; that if he, Sherman, was not available, we should take the
next man in military rank and reputation viz., Schofield. On
his stating that under no circumstances could Sherman be chosen,
I then named General Schofield.
My final, positive, and unshaken position to the end was that
I would not take the place unless it was given with substantial
unanimity. I would not have it after a contest with any one. If
any number wanted anybody else, I would not take it. Colonel
Nicholson replied: "Then you will be chosen, for all want you."
It so turned out. I told the same thing to Commander E. C.
Dawes. General Chamberlain told me after our meeting at the
library that if I was modest I would have to leave the chair,
for he was a-going to nominate me for Commander-in-Chief
on the unanimous request of all present -- about thirty members.
The election was fixed for the afternoon. Our business meeting
in the forenoon was agreeable in all respects but without incident
worthy of note. Present: General Fairchild, General Gregg,
Hartranft, and many others of note. The Philadelphia members
were particularly cordial and disposed to congratulate me.
412 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
In the afternoon meeting when Governor Chamberlain rose
and spoke of his embarrassment in speaking in the presence of
etc., I immediately left the chair to General Gregg, commander
of the Pennsylvania commandery, and left the hall. I met in
the office of the library Dr. William H. Egle of the State Library
of Pennsylvania. We sat down and he showed me the last vol-
ume of the "Pennsylvania Archives" and asked me to let him
supply my missing volumes.
We soon heard applause in the room adjoining. It was quite
a burst at the close of some speaker. I was told it was Colonel
Livermore, of Massachusetts, who made, it was said, a splendid
but short speech. In a few moments Governor Chamberlain
and came to me in the office where I was talking with
Dr. Egle and announced to me that I had been chosen unan-
imously Commander-in-Chief. I went in with the committee.
All rose and applauded. I made two sentences of talk and was
immediately installed by General Gregg. I replied to the con-
stitutional question: "To the best of my ability, yes."
Then came the filling of my vacancy as Senior Vice-Com-
mander-in-Chief. General Hawley [was] unanimously chosen.
Nominations were then made to fill his vacancy as Junior
Vice. J. Mason Loomis, of Chicago, General Charles
Devens, of Massachusetts, General Gresham, of Indiana. No
concentration. A recess of ten minutes. After recess, all
names [were] withdrawn and expunged from [the] record.
Then General Gresham [was] again nominated. Soon Surgeon-
General Brown [was] nominated. On a ballot, the vote stood
for General Gresham eighteen and for Brown ten. Gresham
[was] declared elected.
In the forenoon meeting, after reading the call, prayer by
Chaplain Trumbull, and roll-call, I delivered memorial address
on Sheridan. Well received [and] ordered printed.
In the evening at the banquet of the Pennsylvania Com-
mandery at Union League [Club, I] gave it again. Congratu-
lations seemed hearty and general.
My own feelings are those of gratification of course. Coming
as it [the election] did, etc., etc.
COMMANDER LOYAL LEGION 413
ALDINE HOTEL, PHILADELPHIA, October 17, 1888.
MY DARLING:--You will hear of the doings of the Legion
today before this reaches you, and no doubt you will share my
feelings. Nothing could have been done more handsomely. It
was not merely unanimous, but it was done heartily and in the
best way. Governor Chamberlain, of Maine, made the nomi-
nating speech and the speech of Colonel Livermore, of Massa-
chusetts, was spoken of as wonderfully beautiful. I was not
present at the time. On a confidential caucus, only one man
was for anybody else (he was for Schofield), and he at once
said:--"I have not the least objection to Hayes, but think the
Regular Army should have [the office]. I will of course make
it unanimous." He afterwards congratulated me cordially.
The talk on Sheridan went off so well that I am asked to
repeat it tonight at the banquet of the Pennsylvania Commandery
at the Union League Club House.
You notice that Hawley was advanced from Junior Vice-
Commander to my former place and Judge Gresham to Junior
Vice. The latter was after a good deal of well-tempered di-
vision and debate, and was finally made unanimous.
I called, after it was over, at the United Service Club and met
welcome greetings in all quarters.
This is on the whole the pleasantest of the honors that have
come to me since Washington, and has some advantages over
that. "So much." Ever,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
P. S.--I return, reaching home Friday or Saturday. Love
again. -- R.
October 20, 1888. -- Returned from Philadelphia last eve-
ning about 7 P. M. Companion William McConway, of Pitts-
burgh -- a man not merely polite but intelligent and interesting
--insisted on giving me his section in the sleeper for my upper
414 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
October 22. Monday.--W. O. Stoddard is writing the lives
of the Presidents for Frederick A. Stokes, successor to White,
Stokes, and Allen. I have read his Jackson and Van Buren.
He writes with force and judgment. The style is colloquial.
But enough is given and done to make the books seem popular
and reliable as well. Therefore I will furnish him with means to
make the sketch of me a good one.
October 23. Tuesday.--Wrote many letters yesterday; many
more today, and yet am fearfully behind.
October 24. Wednesday.--Busy still with correspondence
and not near the end! Will [shall] I ever catch up?
Reading Matthew Arnold's "God and the Bible." His pivotal
statement is: "Two things about the Christian religion must
surely be clear to anybody with eyes in his head. One is that
men cannot do without it; the other that they cannot do with
it as it is." . . .
October 25. Thursday.--Attended G. A. R. post. A German
comrade told of shooting deserters; failure to kill after two
squads fired; an officer with a revolver finished the tragedy. In
Burnside's corps, 1864.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO,
[October --, 1888.]
MY DEAR SIR:--It gives me special pleasure to accept your
kind invitation to attend the meeting of the wardens of the
Western penitentiaries to present testimonials of their esteem
to Major McClaughry, the warden of the prison at Joliet, on
the occasion of his leaving that prison for another field of labor.
Indeed, I have so high an appreciation of Major McClaughry
that I prefer the privilege of uniting with you in the testimonial
instead of being present merely as your guest.
In my attendance on the meetings of the National Prison As-
sociation I have had an opportunity to know something of the
value of the major's work as a practical manager of convicts,
as a wise and intelligent penologist, and as an accomplished and
estimable gentleman. Believing, as I do, that the general public
CHARACTERISTICS OF GARFIELD 415
do not fully understand the importance of a prison system and
prison administration that shall be at once practical, wise, and
humane, I think it an occasion of public importance when de-
served honor is manifested in behalf of a man like our friend
and associate, Major McClaughry. Unless prevented by some
unforeseen circumstances not now anticipated, I shall be present
at the proposed meeting of prison wardens at Joliet.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE CHARLES E. FELTON,
SUPERINTENDENT CHICAGO HOUSE OF CORRECTION.
October 28. Sunday.--William T. Crump and his daughter
Hattie, came last night. He was my orderly during most of the
war, my steward at the White House, the steward also under
Garfield and Garfield's devoted nurse during all of his painful
weeks after the wound, July 2, until his death September 19.
His nervous system was ruined by the labor and anxiety of that
He tells many things showing that Garfield during his illness
was in full possession of his faculties; would joke but never
smiled even when everyone else laughed. "Once Mrs. Garfield
was reading items from the morning paper to the President.
The death [of] Dean Stanley was read. The President said:
'A letter to Mrs. Dean Stanley should be written.' Then an
item that Sitting Bull was starving in the North. Mrs. Garfield
said: 'They better let him starve.' The President hated the oat-
meal the doctors required him to eat every morning. He said:
'Oh no, send him my oatmeal.'"
Crump got heart disease from his drowning on the Kanawha
in the spring of 1863. The raft, on which he was carrying head-
quarters baggage, etc., from the Falls down to Charleston, was
caught in a strong current by the rope at the ferry below the
Falls and torn to pieces. Crump was saved as he was sinking
the last time (the third) by a comrade. He was insensible for
416 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
His stories of foraging for headquarters grub are most inter-
esting and curious. His duty was to get it--the way was not
important. "The end justified the means." Larceny, deception,
and force were freely used.
October 29. Monday.--Crump tells me, speaking of Presi-
dent Garfield: "I found him an agreeable, friendly man, of good
disposition and temper. I heard him once say to McKinley:
'Old fellow, how long is this worry a-going to last?' McKinley
replied: 'Until you put your foot down and stop it.' Garfield
replied: 'I would rather be up on the Hill at fifteen hundred
dollars a year than here at one hundred and fifty thousand dol-
lars.' Blaine had his own way in 'most all things. Garfield was
wrapped up very much in Blaine. When Garfield was shot
Blaine was broken down completely. He threw his arms around
Garfield and cried. This was in the White House.
"I never saw Garfield very angry but once. Dinner had been
announced, Mrs. Garfield and others were in the dining-room and
Garfield had been sent for two or more times. Finally Mrs. Gar-
field sent me to stay until I could bring him down. I found him
with MacVeagh, Cameron, and two or three others discussing the
nomination of Chandler for a leading place in the Attorney-Gen-
eral's office. MacVeagh, Cameron, and others were urging the
withdrawal of Chandler's name. Garfield was saying that it could
not be done. McVeagh with an oath brought his first down on the
table saying the name must be withdrawn. Garfield in great
wrath brought his fist down [saying]: 'By G-d, sir, it shall not
be withdrawn!' and Garfield immediately went down to dinner.
But he was so angry he did not eat anything."
Crump says a number of the boys of the Twenty-third always
claimed that Dr. Joe Webb, the surgeon, was the second man over
the slough at the battle of the Opequon. "They said that he got
up on the bank and found one of the gunners loading a gun. Dr.
Webb seized a spoke of a wheel that had probably been broken
and knocked the gunner down and probably killed him. This
was told by General Hayes' orderly, Underhill (Nate), Charlie
Smith, Loomis, and others. I have often heard them talk it
CHARACTERISTICS OF GARFIELD 417
Crump [says], the morning Garfield was shot, he was in exu-
berant spirits. Going for a month to enjoy himself ! Mr. Brown
had just returned from a trip to London. That morning Garfield
was to go on the train to New York. The announcement was
made that in twenty minutes the train would leave. Garfield asked
Brown if he had heard any religious stories abroad. Soon he
said: "I will tell one. A preacher with a Bible in one hand and
a prayer-book in the other, going Sunday to church, saw some
boys playing marbles. The preacher said: 'Boys, you should not
play marbles on Sunday.' One of the boys replied: 'There is
nothing in the Bible against playing marbles.' The preacher said:
'Yes, there is. Can you read?' The boy said, 'yes.' 'Well, if I
show it to you, will you go to Sunday-school?' The preacher
pointed to a passage, 'Marvel not.' The boy read it and said:
'I give it up. I must go to Sunday-school.'" This was Presi-
dent Garfield's last anecdote.
Before Garfield left the White House he went up into the bed-
room. The boys turned handsprings over the bed. Garfield said:
"These boys think they can do great things," and then turned a
handspring over the bed with more agility than the boys! The
boys kissed him, one on one cheek and the other on the other.
October 30. Tuesday. -- Crump tells stories of Arthur which
need not be repeated. Nothing like it ever before in the Executive
Mansion, --liquor, snobbery, and worse. Outbursts of ill tem-
per, caused by drink no doubt, were odd enough sometimes.
Obeying orders, he [Crump] bought a Kennebec salmon--the
first caught -- for fifty-two dollars, weight twenty-six pounds --
two dollars [a pound] etc., etc. But when the outburst was over,
he was just, etc., for the most part. No doubt his loss of health
and death were due to his excesses.
Today Lucy, accompanied by Mrs. Bristol, left for Boston to
attend the Woman's Home Missionary Society meeting, Novem-
ber 1-7. They will stop at the Parker House, Boston. I am sure
[they] will have a good time. Lucy's short speech is a good one.
About ten minutes -- plain and to the point.
418 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL, November 1, 1888. Thursday A. M.
DARLING:--Our friend Mitchell, presiding elder of the San-
dusky district, replies to Judge Hagans on the will case. He
says the will in question was made in 1875, before the Wo-
man's Home Missionary Society had any existence. This does
seem to put a new face on the affair. Keep cool! If this is cor-
rect your society will do well to consider before beginning even
an amicable suit. But we will, I suppose, hear from Judge Ha-
gans again which may bring up his side. We shall see.
We are getting on nicely. . . . Long drives afternoons.
Please send me newspapers giving the best account of your
doings. Kindest to Mrs. Bristol.
MRS. HAYES, RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
SPIEGEL, November 3, 1888.
DARLING:--Another lovely morning after a day of clouds
and rain yesterday. I go this morning over to Toledo to see
the good people in the Triangle, and the trades display of the
Republican procession. Tuesday, after voting, I go to Cincin-
nati on the urgent invitation of the Loyal Legion who move into
their new quarters next to Robert Clarke on Fourth Street.
I will return in time to meet you as you enter the grove. You
will of course stay as long as you and Mrs. Bristol can enjoy
yourself [selves]. I hope to hear that you consent to serve
another year, but whatever you do will be wisest and best.
We get on nicely. Fannie and Hattie have run the front part
of the house beautifully. Crump and his daughter go home to-
day. An interesting visit with them. . . .
All love. -- Affectionately,
MRS. HAYES, R.
November 3. Saturday.--Will go to Cincinnati to the meet-
ing of the Loyal Legion November 6, leaving here after voting
for Harrison and hoping to hear of his election in Cincinnati.
ARTHUR'S LIFE IN WHITE HOUSE 419
The change is desirable, if for no other reason than to improve
the situation at the White House.
According to Crump, Arthur thought the true social life was
to have entertainments ending with drunken men and women too,
wound up with sobering off on Apollinaris and brandy! Sensual
indulgence was the end and aim of social intercourse. To this
he gave his life and by it lost his life. He left the White House
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