UNIVERSITY INTERESTS -- DEATH OF VICE-PRESIDENT
WHEELER -- FRAUD ISSUE ABANDONED BY DEMOCRATS
IN 1880 -- GENERAL COMLY'S DEATH -- SOLDIERS' RE-
UNION AT WHEELING, FLAG INCIDENT -- INTEREST IN
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION -- THE MONEY POWER --
CHURCH AT FREMONT BURNED -- 1887-1888
SPIEGEL, May 10, 1887.
MY DARLING:--Your mother goes with me to Colum-
bus tomorrow or next day. It is not certain as to
her going with me to Hampton, Virginia. Probably not. I go to
Columbus to attend a meeting of the trustees of the Ohio State
University, and to Hampton to attend the meeting of the Slater
This day is one of my anniversaries. Twenty-five years ago
I was in sole command of a small body--nine companies of
Twenty-third, perhaps four hundred and fifty men, a section
of McMullen's Battery, about forty men, and some three hundred
to four hundred cavalry of the Second Virginia. We had
marched into the enemies' country some forty or fifty miles in
advance of our main army under General Cox. I knew [we]
were very likely to be attacked by a greatly superior force and
was up and out a mile or two, to our picket in the direction of
the enemy before daylight. My duty, as I saw it, was not to re-
treat until I knew the attacking force was largely superior to
mine. Yet I must move in time not to be destroyed or gobbled.
The sole responsibility made me anxious, but it also made me
insensible to personal danger. I soon found the enemy were
probably three thousand or four thousand strong. I put on a
bold face and fought them until my camps and trains were ready
to go, or were out of danger. All the forenoon we maintained a
retreating fight; got off safely. My first wound--a shell frag-
ment hit the right knee. I feel it yet.
MISS FANNY HAYES RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
INTEREST IN STATE UNIVERSITY 325
May 12. Thursday. Columbus. -- We reached here after an
agreeable trip at about 10 P. M. and were welcomed warmly by
Laura and the young folks.
I learn by the morning paper that a meeting of the university
board was held the 10th. My predecessor, Mr. S. H. Ellis, made
his farewell speech to the board. Suitable resolutions of regret
were passed. I do not know the ground of his non-reappoint-
ment. When the matter of appointment was named to me, I
said distinctly that I would not compete for the place for [with]
any one, nor take the place at the expense of a removal of any
one on my account. I was told there would be a vacancy in any
event. Hence my consent to serve. I declined to say even this
much in advance. If appointed, I would consider it. The place
came to me and I am now pleased with it.
Called 11 A. M. on the governor. He is absent at Yellow
Springs. Also an Mr. Alexis Cope, secretary of the board
of trustees. Two things he calls attention to:--The trouble
with the Grange element who complain that the farming interest
is neglected, and the fact that the president [of the university]
is not the ideal president. President Scott gets on well with
the faculty, but does not magnetize students, nor the public. He
is however, plainly, so good that he will do, and must not there-
fore be disparaged.
The next meeting of the board is on the 20th of June, Mon-
day; to be together the 18th, Saturday evening, so as to hear the
baccalaureate sermon, Sunday, 19th.
Afternoon, called on Judge Bates. He has lost his wife re-
cently. We kept away from sorrows and talked only of old times
-- pioneer days -- and managed to have a cheerful half-hour to-
May 13. Friday -- I made a hasty run through the college.
The geological collection is very valuable. The equipment in
many respects is creditable. The weak points are the library, the
preparation for mechanical industrial education and, I suspect,
also for agricultural manual training. The military drill was
I met Professors Norton, Tuttle, Smith, Knight, Weber, Derby.
326 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
I found President Scott a gentleman of good presence, and with
culture and ability for his place--so far as I could judge by a
I noticed a lack of attention to trees and grass. The arbore-
tum, if there is one, I did not see. More trees should be along
the main drive, especially on the south side.
May 18. Wednesday. Richmond, Virginia.--After a hot
day reached here about 6 P. M. The ride from daylight, at
Jackson River in the Allegheny Mountains, was very agreeable
until by an accident in front of us to a freight train we were de-
layed three hours as we were drawing near to Charlottesville.
This was tedious in the heated cars and lost us the train to New-
port News, compelling me to spend the night at the Exchange
and Ballard--a good hotel.
Before reaching Richmond, Mr. Wickham, the president of
the railroad, came aboard and asked me to stop with him over-
night, promising to get me into the city in time for this morning's
train. I declined on account of trunk, dirt, etc. Mem.:--Always
travel with a valise also.
The landlord, Mr. Carrington, was very kind. Visited the
capitol; a caucus on the debt question, the lieutenant-governor
speaking, so an old gentleman in the park told me. He "knew
Rode over the bridge in street car to Manchester. A youngster
with his basket told me the colored people were assuming too
much; they not only rode in the cars, but they remained seated
when white men were standing. The Knights of Labor were
strong until they were hurt by "social quality." "Enough social
quality now. Don't want any more." He was from Pennsyl-
vania; had been here two years; liked it well.
Called at the governor's house. He was not in. Left my
May 27. Friday. -- Was with my post of the G. A. R. at To-
ledo to attend unveiling of General Steedman's monument. Great
crowd. Rain interrupted the principal address. My view of the
matter is, Steedman, a rough man of force and heart, reckless
in all money matters, a gambler and licentious, was prompt in tak-
GENERAL STEEDMAN'S INFLUENCE 327
ing the right side in the war; by pen, voice, and example, did
more for the cause than any other man in this region. He pre-
vented Democrats by the thousand from going wrong. A divided
North was our danger. On that question, as a Democrat of the
Democrats, he had a power and an influence which no score of
Republicans that you can name ever had or could have.
May 28. Saturday. -- Yesterday W. D. Howells and his sister
called. A happy greeting and meeting. He warmly commended
May 29. Sunday.--The memorial service went off beauti-
fully at the Presbyterian church. Mr. Barnes preached a good
warlike sermon. The music by Dorr was excellent. The sing-
ing was appropriate. The closing with the "Battle Hymn of the
Republic," in which the audience joined in the chorus, was es-
Reading the novel of Tolstoy's, "Anna Karenina."
May 31. Tuesday.--Two special items today, one sad, one
very gratifying. Thomas R. Trowbridge, of New Haven, died
last week. He was a distant relative. Rutherford was his mid-
dle name. His mother was a Hayes, and the Hayeses are de-
scended also from the Trowbridge of early times. He was a
genial, friendly, patriotic, benevolent, and just man. With a good
estate by inheritance, a good business man also, he has been very
fortunate in his life. Lucy and I visited him in 1880 at the
Yale commencement. I also called on him last winter. He was
then suffering [with] the disease which caused his death. A
good and a fortunate man has left us. One of the noted men of
The Supreme Court has decided in favor of General Runkle
in the case in which I have taken a great interest. Runkle, a
wounded officer, was put on duty in the Freedmen's Bureau.
June 3. Friday. -- The news of Mr. Wheeler's near approach
to his end seems to be confirmed. To use his own phrases, he
was a "rare man"; "every fibre of his nature" was sound and
true. He was one of the few Vice-Presidents who was on cor-
dial terms--intimately and sincerely friendly -- with the Presi-
328 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
dent. Our family all were heartily fond of him. He came often
to the White House and often expressed in strong language the
pleasure his visits gave him. In character he was sterling gold.
June 4. Saturday.--One of my anniversaries. Fifty-three
years ago today I came in the stage with mother, Uncle Birchard,
and Sister Fanny to this town en route for New England to visit
our grandparents at Brattleboro, Vermont, and the relatives in
Vermont and Massachusetts. We left Delaware about 4 A. M.,
reached Lower Sandusky (here) about 8 or 9 P. M. It rained
near Upper Sandusky. This caused delay. Mother stopped six
miles up the river on account of a sick headache, at Mrs. Frary's
tavern. This was my first visit to this town, June 4, 1834. I
celebrated it by buying Lucy and myself each an elegant rock-
ing-chair of Delaware make.
Mr. Wheeler, ex-Vice-President, died this morning of soften-
ing of the brain. One of the excellent examples of a New
England man of ability and character, who by sheer force of
perseverance, integrity, and good conduct, rose from poverty to
independence and honorable place. I will start for his home in
northeastern New York at Malone tomorrow evening.
MALONE, NEW YORK, Wednesday, June 8, 1887.
MY DARLING:--We start home this morning via Niagara.
This note ought not to be more than twelve or twenty-four hours
ahead of us. Our hosts are Mr. Lewis, a son of Honorable
Samuel Lewis, of Cincinnati,--formerly a minister of the
Methodist Episcopal Church, now of the Episcopal church here
and for four years past. All very agreeable.
I was met by a special train at Norwood, thirty or forty miles
before [reaching] Ogdensburg, and run here just in time for the
funeral. The sermon of Reverend [Mr.] Richardson was perfect
--all you would wish in all respects. The whole affair capitally
managed. I called at the home of Mr. Wheeler; greeted
warmly by the housekeeper on your account. Three or four
ladies at the memorial meeting in the evening heartily shook
hands and sent good words to you.
DEATH OF VICE-PRESIDENT WHEELER 329
The memorial meeting was good of its sort. Many talkers. I,
of course, among them.
Malone is a much more thriving town than I had supposed.
It grows well and is quite charming. . . . It was altogether
best that I came.
SPIEGEL, June 13, 1887.
MY DEAR FRIEND:--I am glad to have your dispatch. The
visit is to be. Tell Mrs. Smith we rely on her to keep you up
I am glad you can speak so well of Schurz' book on Clay.
But no man can realize to this generation the love and admira-
tion he inspired in the most intelligent people of average condi-
tion -- no, of all conditions in America. . . .
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH.
June 25. Saturday. -- My topic for army reunions is to be for
this summer: How to prepare for war in time of peace. Not
by fortifications, by navies, or by standing armies. But by poli-
cies which will add to the happiness and the comfort of all our
people and which will tend to the distribution of intelligence
[and] wealth equally among all. Our strength is a contented
and intelligent community.
1. Instruction in the rudiments of military training, at all
public schools and in all colleges.
2. Education -- not learning, not mere scholarship -- by train-
ing of brain and hand and eyes.
3. National aid in the South for education.
By the results of our war we are made the guardians of the
peace of the world. The world's highest interest is in our cus-
tody--our sacred keeping. We are to have the place of the
great pacific power. Germany or Russia is the great warlike
330 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
power. Great Britain is the great naval power, but we are the
peacemaker, if we intelligently and wisely take advantage of
the results of the War for the Union.
June 28. Tuesday. -- Lucy and I with Laura Fullerton went
over to Toledo this morning to look at the nest Birchard and
Mary are building.
Comly reported near his end. Saw him looking much better
than I supposed he would be. I am ready to help him as if he
were my brother; so told his wife and him. Will take him and
her fine presents of the sort they need in their present affliction
if I can think of such; if not, why, money! I wish I knew what
[would] give them the most happiness and comfort. Possibly
to hire a nurse and other servants extra.
July 3. Sunday. -- Last night my successor, John Correy, was
installed as Noble Grand of Croghan Lodge. This is a great
relief. Mere attendance was a task. Then to look after the sick
and the funerals of the dead was a care. I have made it a rule
through life to attend well to the humblest duties assigned to
me as [an] official, or committeeman, or otherwise. This has
been a necessity for me, with my feelings and notions of duty.
It has also been a powerful aid. One gets the reputation of re-
liability, makes acquaintances favorably, gains friends, becomes a
necessity or a providence to others, and is therefore supported
and pushed ahead. Both for self-comfort and self-interest, I
advise the young to this course.
July 8. Friday. -- At Toledo. Called also on General Comly.
I saw Mrs. Comly and the young lady. A sad and anxious fam-
ily. My old friend is again worse. He suffers a great deal--
was hardly conscious. Mrs. Comly told me that it was selfish
in her to wish him to stay. "He is so good a man, so brave, so
gentle, so kind always." He wishes to escape further suffering.
Death will be a relief to him.
As friends go it is less important to live. My two nearest
friends, Comly and Force, seem to be gone. I still hope for
Force, but how can I? His mind I fear is leaving him.
DEMOCRATS AND FRAUD ISSUE IN 1880 331
July 11, 1887. Monday. -- Governor R. B. Bullock having
sent me a newspaper in which he speaks favorably of me, of my
Administration, of Mrs. Hayes, and of my availability as a can-
didate for President in 1888, I wrote hastily as follows:--
FREMONT, OHIO, July 11, 1887.
MY DEAR GOVERNOR:--I thank you for the copy of the
[Atlanta] Constitution, and am greatly gratified that you can
speak in a way so complimentary of my public conduct.
It is not necessary, I suppose, to assure you of my settled pur-
pose not again under any temptation to take part in public life.
My preference for our next candidate is Mr. Sherman, and
under no circumstances would I consider it [a nomination]. The
action of both parties in 1880 and the result of the election of
that year afforded ample recognition of my title and of the ac-
ceptability of my Administration. The Democratic party, if they
would insist upon the fraud issue, were bound to renominate Til-
den. Their failure to do it was a confession of judgment on
that question. Besides, they did nominate Hancock, who was
openly and decidedly against the fraud issue and personally and
officially friendly to me.
On the other hand, the Republican party took bold ground on
the fraud issue. Senator Hoar presided over our convention.
He was one of the Electoral Commission. The convention nom-
inated for President the public man who, of all others, was most
closely identified with the decision in my favor and against Til-
den. He was a "visiting statesman" to Louisiana and reported
to me and [to] the President and the country that Louisiana in
equity and law belonged to the Republican column. As one of the
Electoral Commission he insisted with vigor and determination
on every step that led to the final result, and voted with the eight
who decided the contest in my favor. Had he voted otherwise
the issue would have been different.
The Democrats made the point against Garfield Tilden him-
self in person urged it in public speech and in letters. The peo-
ple in New York, Connecticut, and Indiana reversed their vote of
1876 and decided in our favor. This is sufficient endorsement.
332 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
I have never had any misgiving about 1876 since the facts
were fully known. We were equitably entitled to more States
than were counted for us and to a decided majority of the popu-
lar vote. But this is ancient history. Your kind words are very
grateful to me. I can say positively that I am content. I tried
to do well--to benefit the whole country by restoring the old-
time good feeling between South and North. I think something
Sincerely, your obliged friend,
R. B. HAYES.
GOVERNOR R. B. BULLOCK,
FREMONT, OHIO, July 14, 1887.
DEAR SIR:--Your letter of last month is before me. You
do not need a six-thousand-dollar church. It is a sin to attempt
to build it in your circumstances. A suitable church, tasteful and
convenient, can be built for two thousand five hundred dollars
to three thousand five hundred dollars. All you spend more
than this is for vanity's sake.
For the privilege of giving you this sensible advice, I send you
ten dollars with best wishes.
R. B. HAYES,
REVEREND F. G. MCCAULEY,
FREMONT, OHIO, July 23, 1887.
MY DEAR SIR:--I have just received your note. It seems to
me almost a certainty -- indeed I am confident -- that your nom-
ination will be unanimously favored by the convention. If, how-
ever, there is opposition and a vote taken, your decision to re-
quire "substantial" unanimity presents a question of some diffi-
culty. The mere "off-ox" men to be found in all large bodies
are not to be regarded. This, of course, with two hundred--
almost one-third--against the resolution you could hardly call
the vote 'substantially" unanimous. With less than one hun-
dred in opposition, or less than one in seven, it seems to me
DEATH OF GENERAL COMLY 333
clear that you would regard the vote as practically unanimous.
With one-seventh against you, query?
I have tried to draw the line as I see it. But the event will I
trust, relieve you of all embarrassment by giving you a hearty
endorsement by acclamation.
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN,
July 24. Sunday. -- We are deeply interested in the affliction
of our friends, General and Mrs. Force [now visiting us]. He
is a noble gentleman. With scholarship and elegant culture in
many directions, with all manly virtues; honorable, heroic, and
scrupulously upright; thoughtful and punctilious in regard to
every duty; by reason of intense overwork in his office as judge
of the superior court of Cincinnati, his nervous system is broken
down, and the strange delusion that he has been charged with
dishonesty of some sort has taken possession of him. This men-
tal hallucination we cannot remove. He has been advised to go
on a sea voyage. He came here to stay ten days and then go by
steamer from New York to Antwerp. He thinks his best friends
suspect him and treat him with contempt. "Why did ----
call me a dog?" I instantly denied it. He seemed to be stag-
gered by the positive and indignant denial. It is an instance of
his delusions. Very sad.
July 25. Monday.--I visited Comly [at Toledo]. All at
home. He is not conscious; a great sufferer. Mrs. Comly says
she has passed through the great trouble.
July 28. Thursday. -- General Comly died last night just be-
fore 10 P. M. My loved comrade all the years of the war! My
devoted and most valued friend ever since! A clear, gentle,
brave soul! At 5 P. M. went over to Toledo; visited Mrs. Comly.
A lovely family all of them. A noble widow.
July 30. Saturday.-- . . . To Keeler's grove near Fort
Meigs. Here was a meeting of the Maumee Valley Monumental
334 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Association. In charge, General John C. Lee, Asher Cook, Keeler
and others. I was announced as president of the day.
August 1. Monday. -- With General Force and wife and Hor-
ton to Orrville en route for Baltimore, New York, and across
the ocean to Antwerp. The general has been benefited by his
visit here. But the future is uncertain--full of anxiety for his
wife and friends.
August 4. Thursday.--My correspondent at Gambier is a
testy young clergyman. He wrote me a tart letter. I reply to-
FREMONT, OHIO, August 4, 1887.
MY DEAR SIR: -- Let us be friends. You are angry. It is al-
ways a mistake to get angry because you are told the truth. I
wrote hastily and perhaps bluntly. I had a host of letters to
answer. I know perfectly your situation. I abhor church debts.
You are in an old community with no prospect of growth. To
go in debt, hoping to raise money abroad, is a mistake. There
is no lack of gospel privileges at Gambier. It is in no sense mis-
sionary ground. You admit the truth of my statement in cut-
ting down your plan one third. Let another third go.
As to my letter, read it again. If you still find it offensive,
send me a copy or the original, and I will explain or ask you to
pardon me. I am too old to have any other [desire] except to
do precisely what is right towards you and towards every fellow
being. Call up your better nature and reply as it dictates.
R. B. HAYES.
REVEREND F. G. MCCAULEY,
August 5. Friday. -- Reverend John Theodore Kellam, of
Ripley, Huron County, Ohio, born July 30, 1809 [at] Concord,
Sussex County, Delaware, emigrated to Ohio May I, 1816, cross-
ing that day the Ohio river at Wheeling, and settled near Zanes-
ville in Newton township, with parents. Removed to Springfield
township, Putnam, Ohio.
PIONEER CIRCUIT RIDING 335
In twenty-first year to Granville and worked at carpentry.
Helped put the roof on the Baptist college. Then to Columbus,
Ohio, and worked on "Sugar in the Gourd." Thence to the
Quaker settlement in Delaware County. Licensed to preach in
1833 at Mount Gilead. "Thence my appointment [he says] was
at Lower Sandusky, Clyde, and a large number of other places,
on Touissant, and elsewhere; all together thirty-six places, many
of them at private houses and schoolhouses. No church buildings
of any sort in this town when I came here. Rev. William Sulli-
van was on this circuit with me--he in charge--but the work
fell largely on me. I preached in this place my first year in the
court-house often. We built the first church here on the corner
of Garrison and Arch street where Dr. Hilbish now lives. It was
almost out of town then. I preached in it often. Left here the
next year sick and went to Sandusky.
"I knew Sardis Birchard [and] Judges Justice and Hulburd.
Birchard and Hulburd were engaged in taking care of the sick
and dying in cholera time. Birchard gave not less than five hun-
dred dollars out of his own pocket to support the sufferers and
to bury the dead.
"The sheriff joined the church when I was exhorting in the
court-house. Our members were:--Thomas L. Hawkins and
family, Samuel Treat and family, ---- Emerson and family,
Widow Frary, Jacob Bowlus and family, ---- Lighter and fam-
ily, Brice J. Bartlett (afterwards came out an infidel), Father
Henry Beck and family (four or five), and Rebecca Prior.
"I have preached more or less ever since. I superannuated
some ten years ago. Have lived in Huron County over twenty
years. I was presiding elder--two years at Maumee, and four
years at Wooster district. Member of General Conference 1860
at Buffalo; voted then for the change of rules on slavery."
On the Lower Sandusky circuit his salary was $56.68. All
that was allowed for salary was one hundred dollars, but all that
was collected was $56.68. "Donations were made by a few per-
sons. Birchard gave me, perhaps, in clothing, etc., one hundred
dollars. I preached a funeral sermon on the Seneca Reservation
in 1834 while cholera was raging here; perhaps the only sermon
preached on Seneca Reservation.
336 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
"I have often said that Birchard was the best man I ever
knew without the grace of God. I do not say this because he
was good to me. He was good to everybody. I ought not [to]
speak of him as 'without the grace of God,' for he had it in his
heart. He was merely at that time not a professor of religion."
August 12.--A party in the evening for the young folks--
Grace Derr, of Wilkes-Barre, Emily Failing, of Portland, Ore-
gon, Mary Bulkley, of Hartford, Helen Reynolds, of Wilkes-
Barre, and Mary Goodloe, of Lexington, Kentucky, [school-
mates of Fanny and all house guests for some days]. Singing
August 13. -- The young people now eighteen at the table.
Tennis, shooting at mark, and riding during the day.
Singing, and playing "hide and seek" at night, with dancing, etc.
August 14. -- The visitors attended the Episcopal church to-
day. Lucy and I the Methodist. A young preacher of talents.
Two faults growing in delivery. The young walk about too
much. It is a bad practice. It withdraws attention from the
sermon. Keep within a circle of two feet in diameter. The
other is like unto it. They talk too much of themselves. "All
are fluent on self -- none interesting"; so in substance says By-
August 16. Tuesday. -- Our bevy of fine girls, except Miss
Mary Goodloe, left us last night. A happy visit for them and for
August 17. Wednesday. -- Rutherford, at table this morning,
(only four of us present, viz., Rud, Scott, Lucy, and self,) said:
"Well, Farmington educates natural girls. I saw a New York
school advertisement. There they teach them how to tell
pictures by the old masters from pictures by the new masters,
and how to select diamonds !" There is truth in what he says.
August 19. -- Finished a short essay on General Comly for
the West Virginia Reunion next week. Not what I would wish.
Too many interruptions. Arthur, of Springfield, talked over the
battle of Cloyd's Mountain. Gave a soldier of Brinkerhoff's reg-
FORAKER AND REBEL FLAGS 337
iment money. [He] got "into the cooler." Dr. Brinkerhoff got
him out. I must stop giving money to "tramps."
August 21. Sunday. -- Auntie Davis came for the first time
to visit us at Spiegel [Grove]. Only think of it. One of our
earliest and most constant friends. Indeed Doctor and Mrs.
Davis have been steadfast and warm friends thirty-five or forty
years. They have not visited us. We often visit them.
Mrs. Force is in great distress about the general. He still is
the victim of insane delusions. To attempt to control or confine
him as a lunatic may not be advisable and yet I can think of
nothing else that is practicable.
September 3, 1887. -- August 24-26 at Wheeling. Attended
the monster reunion [of the Army of West Virginia] on the
island at the Fair Ground.
[The] 29th, 30th, and 31st [of] August at the annual reunion
at Lakeside of the Twenty-third O. V. I.
Both reunions were well attended and very enoyable. In his
speech at [the] West Virginia Reunion Governor Foraker wan-
dered off into the Rebel flags' return. He said he would not
leave such a subject "to [a] Massachusetts Mugwump and a New
York Copperhead," meaning the Secretary of War and the Presi-
dent. This and the like gave a partisan turn to speeches in
the evening at the hotel. I was with the soldiers in the tent at
the Fair Ground and knew nothing of it until the next morning.
My connection with the partisan affair was this: A flag with
the portrait of President Cleveland was stretched across the
street the procession was to pass under. It bore the legend:
"God bless our President, Commander-in-Chief of the Army and
Navy of the United States." It was believed by many that the
object was to excite the soldiers to violence. I with others took
the position that the true course was to pay no attention to it,
or to salute it respectfully. I took off my hat and saluted it as I
passed under it. No trouble occurred anywhere near the head
of the procession where I was. But later, bodies of the G. A. R.
men to avoid passing under it obliqued.
338 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL GROVE, September 6, 1887.
MY DEAR GUY:--Your kind remembrance of me from Monte-
rey is appreciated. I am just now overwhelmed with company
and work. We are pained to hear of Mrs. Ballinger's illness.
All who interest you are interesting to us. I am called upon for
all sorts of work. Witness these talks. Don't bore yourself to
read them except when nothing else is possible.
Sincerely. As ever, R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE G. M. BRYAN,
September 7. Wednesday. -- Addressed fifteen thousand peo-
ple at Toledo gas celebration. How will it turn out? Finlay,
the Democratic millionaire, said to me: "I am a Democrat, but
I always say you were a good President. You honestly tried to
do the best you could for the country."
September --, 1887. -- Friday [the] 9th via Buffalo, Lewiston,
and steamer on Lake Ontario to Toronto. Saturday, about 2 or
3 P. M., we (Professor Wayland and others) were met at the
dock by Honorable James Massie and others [and] taken to the
fine hotel (the Rossin House, kept by Mr. Irish). A noble wel-
come in the evening by the lieutenant-governor, mayor, bishop of
Huron, Baldwin, and others. [I] added to my printed speech
a warm and semihumorous talk which was well received.
A good, strong prison reform sermon by Bishop Baldwin Sun-
day. Lunch with Professor Goldwin Smith and wife; Professor
Wayland with me. Interesting conversation with Professor
Smith on English and Canadian politics. He describes Glad-
stone as a demagogue.
Prison Congress opened Monday. Excellent meetings. Mon-
day evening dined with McMasters; Tuesday evening with Lieu-
tenant-Governor Campbell. Both occasions unexpectedly cor-
dial and enjoyable.
TORONTO, Tuesday, September 13, 1887.
DARLING:--Better and better. I wish you were here. We
dined with the leading dissenter last night. All excellent and
PRISON CONGRESS AT TORONTO 339
hearty. They would have sent an earnest appeal to you to come
and be their guest but for lack of previous acquaintance; and it
would have been lovely. Both are models. She went to school
in Norwalk about the time I did. Interested in many common
acquaintances and topics. We will visit them perhaps some day.
I go to Philadelphia tomorrow, Wednesday.
MRS. HAYES, R.
September --, 1887. -- Wednesday morning with Mr. Alfred
H. Love, of Philadelphia, left for Philadelphia via Buffalo.
. . . [The] 15th, reached Philadelphia about 11 A. M. Mr.
Cassidy took me to the Aldine Hotel.
About 2 P. M. General McCook took me across to the grand-
stand on Broad Street and [I] saw the whole industrial parade.
That evening at the reception of Cardinal Gibbons met also
Archbishop Ryan, Bishop Gilmore, etc., etc. [On the] 16th,
military display. Met President Cleveland at [the] Merchants'
Exchange. In the evening of [the] 16th escorted Mrs. Cleve-
land to her place of receiving in the Academy of Music. Did
not see the Foraker affair, although I was very near it.
In the line of those who received were President Cleveland,
Mrs. Cleveland, Mrs. Fairchild, myself, [and] Secretary of State
Bayard, in the order named. The President shook hands with
all who came. Mrs. Cleveland, for some time, as suggested by
the ushers, only bowed to the passers. After a while she with
friendly warmth shook hands with all, and the rest of us on her
left followed suit. This compelled some delay. The ushers sug-
gested haste. Mrs. Cleveland resumed her fan. But again and
again the order was changed. When Governor and Mrs. For-
aker came I shook hands of course with both and introduced
both to Mrs. Fairchild on my left. I did not see the affair
which has caused so much comment. Governor and Mrs. For-
aker told me of it at the hotel. Mrs. Foraker said: "Mrs.
Hayes would never have treated any human being as Mrs. Cleve-
land treated me." Mr. Bushnell's account of it must be accepted
as the truth until it is satisfactorily explained. I regret it.
340 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Mrs. Cleveland has appeared so kindly and full of heartiness
that one can't but hope and think well of her. What an oppor-
tunity she now has! If she were to publicly admit her mistake
and apologize to the Governor and Mrs. Foraker, how all the
world -- the good of the world -- would approve and applaud.
PHILADELPHIA, September 17, 1887.
MY DARLING:--You will see by the enclosed that I had over
two hours with Mrs. Cleveland and exactly how she looked. It
is said, I fear truly, that she failed to take Mrs. Foraker's hand.
Mrs. Foraker said to me this morning that "Mrs. Hayes never
would have done that to anyone" ! ! ! You see the feeling. Other
matters of the same sort are not pleasant. But on the whole it
was a lovely time.
How I wish you were here. You are as much loved and re-
spected here as ever, or more. Constantly I was greeted during
the two hours' handshaking on your account.
I now expect to come Monday or Tuesday. Will dispatch
MRS. HAYES, R.
FREMONT, OHIO, September 21, 1887.
DEAR SIR: -- Your favor of the 16th is before me. My im-
pression is that your "opponent" is correct in his statement of
the fact that the resolution referred to was presented by Mr.
H. R- and probably his view of the matter is also correctly
The committee did not suppose the time had come to aban-
don Reconstruction as the leading and vital issue. No declara-
tion at all on the prohibition issue would probably have been
their preference. They certainly did not wish to commit the
party for or against it. The declaration against "unconstitu-
tional laws" was probably regarded as good politics in a case
where non-committallism was the policy of the platform makers.
MRS. CLEVELAND AND MRS. FORAKER 341
It was silently acquiesced in by the friends of prohibition, and
avoided a breach with its adversaries.
All this is my personal notion of it, not intended for publi-
cation or other use aside from your own satisfaction.
L. C. BREESE, R. B. HAYES.
FREMONT, OHIO, September 25, 1887.
MY DEAR GUY:--You are as ever true and generous. Of
course, I find few men who will see all these things with your
practical eyes. And yet I am not rarely gratified in the same
way. The governor of South Carolina, on the grandstand at
the Centennial in Philadelphia, a few days ago, greeted me with
emphatic and public commendation on the part of himself and
his State in the most generous way, and they were very cordial
on the same ground.
The friendship, personal and political, of Republican leaders
is all I could wish. Of necessity, in the political and partisan
warfare of the time the hot-headed take umbrage at my cooler
and, as I think, fairer way of dealing with these matters. I hav[e]
preferred to let some years pass before I take up the history
of the past, if I ever do it. But for your constant and consider-
ate support, all thanks.
R. B. HAYES.
P. S. -- Mrs. Hayes and I are greatly pained to hear of the
serious illness of Mrs. Ballinger. What a throng of recollections
are called up by the mention of her name! Those golden days
of almost forty years ago on the Brazos! There must be as my
friend Comly says a hereafter to make all things even. I am
still called upon to speak--hence these scraps.
HONORABLE GUY M. BRYAN,
October , 1887.--Favorable weather these days for the
annual conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Bishop
342 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Bowman [our guest], a natural, amiable, and entertaining gentle-
man; formerly a chaplain of the Senate. Also a delightful col-
loquial preacher--tender, pathetic, and effective.
Among our guests also for a part of the time of the conference
were Rev. Dr. Bayliss, of the Western Christian Advocate, the
President of Baldwin [University], at Berea, Rev. Fitz Walter,
We had a reception Friday evening. Four hundred present.
[We] invited the conference [and] their entertainers to meet
Bishop Bowman, President and Mrs. Payne, and Presiding Elder
Whitlock and Mrs. Whitlock.
The good sermons I heard were by the Bishop and Rev. Dr.
Bayliss. Chaplain McCabe was happy as usual on church ex-
I spoke twice Saturday; afternoon on woman's home missions
and evening on industrial education. Well enough.
SPIEGEL, October 2, 1887.
MY DEAR SIR:--Your good letter of the 30th is before me.
I return the letter as to Parrott. No doubt the action is wise.
I want to hear about Grandison. He spoke at our annual con-
ference in the church you corner-stoned. He is able and sen-
sible, if one may judge by a single speech. Why not take him up
and give him the best advantages for scholarship and training
the world affords? He is coal-black of hue, African blood. As
we say of Jerseys, "he can be registered."
R. B. HAYES.
October 3. Monday. -- Fanny and I go to New York to-
night to attend the Peabody meeting.
Altogether the annual conference of the Central Ohio Con-
ference has been a happy time. Mrs. Hayes has enjoyed it,
and has been herself in making others enjoy themselves.
The event of the time is the birth of a son to Birchard and
PEABODY BOARD MEETING 343
Mary at Toledo, yesterday, 2 P. M., Sunday. . . . The first
great-grandchild of the name of Hayes in the Brattleboro branch
of the Hayes family! Therefore all hail to Sherman or Birch-
ard as the case may be!
New York, October 5. Fifth Avenue Hotel. -- Three or four
hours spent in the meeting of the trustees of the Peabody Edu-
cation Fund. Present, Winthrop, Stuart (A. H. H.), Evarts,
Chief Justice Waite, Justice Manning, our Minister to Mexico,
General Jackson, ex-ditto, Governor Porter, of Tennessee, Bishop
Whipple, Drexel, J. Pierpont Morgan, Colonel Lyman, Dr.
Green, and self. Met in a large room on parlor floor at west
end of north hall.
Mr. Winthrop began (a gentleman of the old school): "Our
meeting will be opened with prayer by Bishop Whipple." All
rose except Mr. Winthrop, now bent with the weight of years,
who leaned forward on his hands on the table. Bishop Whipple
in a quiet, distinct tone repeated the Lord's Prayer impressively
and added a few words. Mr. Winthrop then read his opening
address, which see.
He called for [the] "records," accent on the last syllable, of
the last meeting. Dr. Green read the printed last year's report,
omitting resolutions of length, reports ditto, etc., etc., in a busi-
nesslike tone,--loud enough to be easily heard.
Then in some detail Mr. Winthrop told how President Payne
was appointed by him, on the suggestion of Dr. Curry, as presi-
dent, subject to the confirmation of the board--president of the
Nashville Normal University.
The business proceeded as usual. Justice Waite keeps his at-
tention fixed on the course of things, and is prompt in making
sensible and practical suggestions that are likely to be heeded.
No debating. Brief talks, hitting the nail on the head, and quit-
ting when done, is the uniform habit of all who rise to speak,
or who talk from their chairs. Mr. Evarts is quite as brief and
pithy as any member. No long sentences from him. Our rela-
tions with the local authorities in charge of the Nashville Nor-
mal would in most bodies have occupied hours. It was well dis-
cussed within twenty minutes at the outside. A body of highly
educated and able men wastes few words.
344 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Governor Fish, too unwell to attend, sent a beautiful and dis-
criminating tribute to Governor Aiken, lately deceased.
After working an hour and a half, a lunch of bread, crack-
ers, cold fowl, tongue, coffee and perhaps ale or wine, water
and apollinaris, was enjoyed for ten or fifteen minutes.
Report of treasurer. About one million five hundred thou-
sand dollars in government bonds at 4 or 4 1/2 was debated.
Change favored into bond and mortgage at 5 and 6 per cent and
sell at 124 per hundred of United States bonds. Only three re-
main of Mr. Peabody's original board, viz., Winthrop, Fish,
and Evarts, out of sixteen! The three now out of health are
Manning, Stuart, and Lyman.
October 6. Thursday.-- Last evening the Peabody dinner.
The members present the same as at the business meeting ex-
cept Judge Manning and Colonel Lyman--out of health.
With Mrs. Winthrop. I had an interesting time with her.
Forgetting that she was the daughter of Francis Granger, I was
agreeably surprised to find she knew General Force. Old times
were the source of good long conversations. Her afflicted
daughter was on my left with Bishop Whipple. Ladies pres-
ent: Mrs. Winthrop, Mrs. Whipple, her daughter of Philadel-
phia, a large fine figure, Mrs. Paul, daughter of Drexel, Mrs.
General Jackson, Mrs. Waite.
During the dinner, Mr. Porter, a committee of one from the
Loyal Legion opening dinner, came over after me. On my
telling him of General Sherman's presence, General Sherman
was also invited. A good time with Colonel Church as acting
commander at Delmonico's. Made a warm little speech. Then
taken to the Yacht Club, -- and another time.
A. S. Sullivan, Esq., was the welcoming orator to the Scotch
Thistle men. They got him pretty full, and he greeted me with
the greatest gush about old times in Cincinnati. It was in spots
rather maudlin, but on the whole left a pleasant taste in my
mouth. He is, I suspect, a fine gentleman and a good fellow.
At least, I shall so think of him in spite of his condition last
[At] 12:20 P. M., Peabody Board, all business done, ad-
PEABODY BOARD MEETING 345
journed to first Wednesday in October 1888 here, unless Presi-
dent Winthrop and the executive committee otherwise determine.
Elected Mayor William A. Courtenay, of Charleston, South
Carolina, trustee to fill vacancy caused by death of Governor
October 8. Saturday. -- With Mr. Simon Stevens, a nephew
of "Old Thad," visited the Produce Exchange. Mayor Edson
and Mr. Milmine, formerly of Toledo, were with us; also Fanny,
Miss Stevens, Mabel Stevens, and Miss Pennington, of Phila-
delphia. From top to bottom. Also the lovely bay and the
Commissioner of Emigration's [Immigration's] house, etc., etc.
Dined with Schurz. Met General Hastings and Emily in the
evening at 20 East Twentieth Street. Fanny sails with them
to Bermuda on the Orinoco, Thursday, 13th.
A long talk with ----, a close friend of Garfield. He now
is working up the case against Blaine. His list of cases or occa-
sions in which Blaine has acted with duplicity, falsehood, and
corruption is very long and if true frightful.
Mr. and Miss Endicott called. Pleasant people. He told of
a toast an old Federal lawyer gave: "The health of Joseph
Story [here there was dissent among his hearers], elevated to
the Supreme Bench from a hogshead in Wells's distillery, he
will be worthy of the place whence he sprang." Both parties
held their meetings in distilleries in the good old times of Adams
and Jefferson and were far more brutal in their attacks on each
other than they are in our day. Mr. Endicott told of the horse-
whipping of Joseph Story in his younger days.
October 9. Sunday.--Yesterday called on Whitelaw Reid
at his office. A short and agreeable interview. The danger is
that the Catholic Church will drive all its labor men back into
the Democratic party and that many Republicans will go to the
new party. With my sympathy for the general cause of the
workingmen, this to me is not so awful. Let there be enough
good men in the new party to save it from dangerous measures.
Called on Fred Mead -- good wife -- nice baby. Ditto, Melvil
Dewey; also a long call on General Schurz.
346 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
FREMONT, OHIO, October 15, 1887.
DEAR MADAM:--Your letter of the third came to my desk
during my absence, and has just been read.
Pecuniary aid, applied for by strangers, is so common in our
circumstances, and often of so questionable a character, that
the letters asking for it are usually allowed to go unnoticed.
In this case, however, I say to Mr. N. Hulett, that if he approves
of the object he may pay you for the Duluth Home Society fifty
dollars and charge it to me. By showing him this note he will
be authorized to act.
R. B. HAYES
MRS. SARAH B. STEARNS,
PRESIDENT DULUTH HOME SOCIETY.
October 22. Saturday. -- Returned last evening after a happy
time at Philadelphia. Presided over the Commandery-in-Chief
of Loyal Legion at the hall of the Pennsylvania Historical So-
ciety. At the Meade Post G. A. R. banquet, a very enthusiastic
greeting. Made a fair speech. Again, Wednesday, at banquet
of Pennsylvania Commandery of Loyal Legion to the Command-
ery-in-Chief, at the Union League, gave them the close of the
battle of Cedar Creek, twenty-three years before; October 19,
October 24. Monday.--Webb came in time for breakfast
from his hunt in Wyoming near Utah and Idaho. He is strong
and healthy. Not much success with game. The Indians hunt
the large animals for food. About a third of their subsistence
must come from hunting.
SPIEGEL, October 24, 1887.
MY DARLING:--Spent last week at Philadelphia presiding
over Commandery-in-Chief of the Loyal Legion and unveiling
statue of General Meade. On return found Lucy had gone for
three days to look after the boy and the settlement of Birch and
Mary in their new home.
ADVOCACY OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 347
Webb returned from his hunt with General Crook in Wyo-
ming this morning. Never looked so well before.
Our new preacher, Mr. Mills, with his wife, three daughters,
and girl Winnie, are still with us. The parsonage will be all
right in a day or two when they will leave us.
The other home in Toledo will have a large share of Spiegel
soon at the rate carpets and things are moving in that direction
under the energetic management of the new grandmother. Scott
counts on a room in the Ashland Avenue home. Thus with
you in Bermuda, and the rest at different Ohio places, Ruther-
ford and I will be left alone to continue the campfire at Spiegel.
We all love you--but papa most.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
October 27. Thursday.--Evening visited VanDoren. His
talk of the town prospects is intelligent and interesting. The
town certainly is growing again. I talked of a village improve-
ment society of Fremont to Mr. Meek and Rutherford.
Another idea is that we give a reception to the newcomers and
their families, to be met by the Board of Trade and their fam-
ilies; the editors and preachers ditto.
October 28. Friday.--A letter from Russell A. Bigelow,
grandson of my Uncle Russell Hayes, shows that he has caught
the genealogical fever. He inquires after the ancestors of Abi-
gail Hale and says, "Of the one hundred and twenty-eight an-
cestors back as far as the seventh generation, there are only
some thirty-two who are unknown to me." Well done.
November 6. Sunday. -- Returned last evening from a trip
via Toledo and the Ohio Central to Bucyrus and Cincinnati.
At Bucyrus addressed a church full of the District Conference
and people in behalf of industrial education for high school and
college. Well received. Bucyrus is a fine town of seven thou-
348 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
At Cincinnati met with the Loyal Legion. A rambling, quiet
talk and told the incidents at Buford's Gap.
Returned via Lima Saturday. On train met J. B. Townsend,
prosecuting attorney of Lima, and General Ewing. In quite
general accord with both as to the labor-capital question. A
few get MORE than their share, the working, productive many
get LESS than their share, is the corner-stone fact, is the evil to
be prevented in the future by peaceful and lawful means. We
agree that, of course, lawlessness and violence are to be put
down; order and prosperity are to be preserved.
November 10. Thursday. -- With Lucy visited Birchard and
Mary. All night with them Wednesday. First sleeping in their
new and beautiful home. Workmen still engaged in finishing.
Left home after voting. The election in Ohio, a victory for
the Republicans. In other States fairly so except New York.
I account for New York by the increased activity of the saloon
interest. In that State the Republicans made a square assault
on the saloons. As usual in such cases, the saloon interest by
combining with the Democrats carried the day.
Called on Mrs. Comly at her new home, 73 Locust Street, and
went over in a general way the proposed pamphlet or volume
in memoriam General Comly.
November 13. Sunday.--A letter from General Sheridan
wanting my article or lecture on Cedar Creek. Sent him the pro-
ceedings of the reunion of the Army of West Virginia at Ports-
mouth in 1886 with my speech marked.
November 14. Monday. -- The Evangelical preacher, Schott,
preached a good sermon at the fifty-seventh annual county Bible
meeting. It gave a detailed and statistical account of the Bible.
[At] 10 A. M. met with the board at Wilson's office.
November 15. Tuesday. -- At the Loyal Legion banquet in
Philadelphia I made a sprightly speech. It was the anniversary
of the battle of Cedar Creek. I referred to it. A man at the
lower end of the table, perhaps in liquor, asked, "Where were
you?" I replied, "If you had been there you would not ask
REPUBLICAN SUCCESS IN 1887 349
that question." It brought down the house. I received an ac-
count of it "with the compliments of Admiral Almy, Washing-
ton, D. C."
FREMONT, OHIO, November 15, 1887.
MY DEAR SIR: -- Enclosed find a letter from [Thomas] Nichol
which please return. The general impression is that recent events
have improved your chances.
When [I was] in New York before election Nichol predicted
failure this fall. He also urged me to bring to your attention
the importance of decisive action on your part, viz., that your
friends--naming two Illinois leaders, Farwell and Jones--
should be in more intimate and cordial relations with you--in a
situation to confer freely and to act advisedly. I told him I
would inform you, hoping to meet you somewhere pending our
state election. He strikes me as sincere in his friendship.
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN.
November 17. Thursday.--Washington's letter to his favorite
nephew Bushrod Washington, to whom he left Mount Vernon,
contains excellent and quotable sentences. Dated January 15,
Webster's speech at the Washington Centennial, 1832, "The
Character of Washington," is worthy of careful reading. It is
referred to by Mr. Evarts in his argument to the jury in the
case of the officers and crew of the Savannah, tried for piracy
in New York in 1861.
November 18. -- With Mr. White visited the newly-established
manufactures of the town, viz., the railroad spike factory, car-
bon works, drop-forge works, Clauss shear works, and fifth-
wheel works. All are new; all seem to promise well, and
all except one are already doing good work. These, with what
we already have, give good reason for the hope that this will
350 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
be a place of prosperous manufacturing interests. Mr. White
says we will not equal or compete with Cleveland or Toledo,
but in ten years we may expect to have a population of twenty
thousand. It seems possible.
November 19. Saturday.--I told Mr. White I thought of
giving a reception to the newcomers. He approved of it heartily.
Invite all the newcomers and their wives [and] the other prin-
cipal manufacturers. Also journalists, clergy, city officers, and
a few [other] leading citizens.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, November 19, 1887.
MY DEAR COMRADE:--It would indeed be a joy to meet you
and the comrades at your installation. No man in your audience
will be a happier listener to your soldier talk, when your turn
comes, than your Buckeye friend would be if he could attend.
But it is out of the question. This is one of my busiest months.
All I can do is to thank you for your invitation, and to assure
you of the lasting friendship and the warmest good wishes of
Mrs. Hayes and
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
P. S. -- Please so report me with thanks to the committee of
COLONEL EDWARD ANDERSON,
November 20. Sunday.--Attended funeral of Statira Dick-
inson. She died of paralysis. Went to sleep and never awoke.
She was taken to St. Ann's church. With me as pall-bearers
were Haynes, Dr. Rice, Judge Finefrock, McCulloch. Father
McCarthy preached an orthodox, old-fashioned, eternal-punish-
ment sermon. Nothing noticeable, except the dogmatic way in
which he put it down -- "this is the doctrine of the church."
November 25. Friday.--Spent Thanksgiving at Toledo. A
capital dinner and social reunion at Birchard's. Our first dinner
STEADFAST FOR SINGLE TERM 351
with Birchard and Mary at their own table and in their new
I reached Columbus Monday, 4:30 P. M. . . . Tuesday
met at the office of Alexis Cope, secretary of Ohio State Uni-
versity, Mr. Wing, president of the board, Mr. Booth, attorney
of Columbus, and Honorable Cowgill. The controversy between
the board of control of the experiment station, representing the
farmer sentiment of the State, and our university board is the
interesting point in the present situation. My impression is in
favor of a policy which will restore harmony between the uni-
versity and the farming interest. Let us grant to the experiment
station all the land and other privileges in our power, without
injury to the university, it being understood that in like manner
the friends of the experiment station will aid the university in
all proper ways.
November 26. Saturday.--W. K. Rogers my old friend,
and with me as private secretary during my term as President
at Washington, [is here]. A man of fine culture, noble senti-
ments, a true friend; too guileless for practical life, and so unsel-
fish and unsuspecting that his business ventures have generally
been failures. He is interested with me at Duluth. Hence his
visit. He talked entertainingly about the Presidential situation
in 1880. He says it was a surprise to my friends that I was in
earnest in refusing to think of a second term. They could not
believe it. They argued that many Presidents, including Wash-
ington and Jackson, were committed against a second term, but
no President ever failed to accept it if offered, and to seek it
at the end of his first term, if seeking it was apparently neces-
sary to get it. Said he: "You have the distinction of being the
one President who, believing in the one-term principle, was true
to your convictions. It would be a long story to tell of the
numbers who took an interest in the second-term talk for you."
Rogers left for home via Wellington [at] 3 P. M. He added
two thousand dollars to the debt for which I am his surety.
November 27. Sunday.--No book study merely--no study
without practice--gives a complete and thorough education.
The study of rhetoric will not make an orator or a writer. Dec-
352 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
lamation, debate, the habit of composition must be formed by
practice. Work must go with study. Geology and the other
sciences are to be learned well only by practical work. Thor-
oughly to understand a theory, we must be able to put it into
I constantly find an advantage in working for educational and
benevolent enterprises in the fact that having been in the first
place, I am not suspected of wanting any personal promotion or
SPIEGEL GROVE, November 27, 1887.
MY DEAR FRIEND: -- It is too bad that we lost another chance
to see Mrs. Smith and you. Rogers was here yesterday. Our
talk of Washington days led us to you at every turn.
Just now I am giving my thoughts to the Ohio State Uni-
versity at Columbus. It is in some respects not in a satisfactory
condition. It will come out in due time. If anybody was its
founder, in the words of George Corwin, "a great part of it I
am which." The land I worked so hard to get, now in the city
of Columbus, is already worth twice as much as the land-grant
fund, and will be in a few years worth millions.
I am to be in Columbus again [the] 7th and 8th of next month.
When will you be there or in Cincinnati? I have no other en-
gagement before the 20th [of] December.
With greatest regard of all here to all there.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES
HONORABLE WM. HENRY SMITH.
FREMONT, OHIO, November 29, 1887.
MY DEAR SIR: -- To encourage a young person striving for an
education is a labor of love. Unfortunately my senator, a very
worthy man, is not entitled to go into the caucus that would aid
you by its nomination. If you fail in this, do not give up.
There are many ways open to those who resolutely push.
E. P. NOEL. R. B. HAYES.
A RECEPTION FOR NEWCOMERS 353
November 30. Wednesday. -- Emerson, as shown by Cabot,
is almost as good a democrat as I am. I read to Lucy his talk
about a separate table for servants, talking in their presence
in a way to wound their feelings, etc., etc. She said: "I am de-
lighted to hear that from Emerson. I don't think much of tran-
scendentalism, but that is good sense and good feeling too." I
said: "Yes, he is almost as good a democrat as I am." She re-
plied: "But don't say democrat; say republican. That means
December 2. Friday.--Our reception to "all," particularly
the newcomers in the manufacturing plants and others, [last
night] went off beautifully. Lucy had a capital circle of lovely
and sensible ladies to assist her, viz., Mrs. Bristol, Mrs. Dorr,
Mrs. Ranck, and Mrs. Thompson. They were never surpassed
in our experience as ladies for such a place. The newcomers
were out in good force. The workmen, young and old, were
on hand with their employers and their wives. General Buck-
land, Mr. White, Dr. Wilson, Dr. Stilwell, Dr. Caldwell, Dr.
Smith, and other leading citizens were present in goodly num-
bers. Altogether about three hundred were in attendance. Our
preparations were for four hundred to five hundred and the
surplus was considerable. The idea of Mr. White and the
Board of Trade was no refreshments. Of course, Mrs. Hayes
and I insisted on "breaking bread" and "eating salt" with our
guests. Nothing else is quite worthy of the hospitable record
of Spiegel Grove. . . .
This morning a tall, good-looking man called and after some
hesitation announced himself as A. H. Hale, from near Bata-
via, Genesee County, New York. Recently, as he squarely
stated, discharged as a convict from the Michigan state prison
after serving out a ten years' sentence for burglary and larceny
at Monroe, Michigan. By good conduct his sentence was fin-
ished in seven years and seven months. Was guilty but drunk.
With two others. One an older man than Hale, after they had
been drinking together, told them that his niece had eight hun-
dred dollars under her bed in his house. The two others got
into her room, told her to show them her money. This she got
354 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
up and did. "We were discovered next day. The old man
[was] not suspected by the citizens. The other turned state's
evidence, but got a five years' sentence. Was well treated in
prison. Chaplain Hickox was a good-hearted man. I had been
a steward in the Methodist Episcopal Church in Genesee
County. Had no confidence in the religion of the prison; would
not go to the church, or rather religious services generally, un-
less compelled. Catholics went; spoke in meeting and would
say they did it merely to aid in getting pardons.
"The rule as to silence in prison does no good but harm only.
Talking is not prevented. But misunderstandings between
prisoners and quarrels would be prevented by an opportunity
for an explanation. Let them talk with proper rules as to dis-
cipline, etc., etc., as in free shops."
He is a wagonmaker by trade. Wants to go home to New
York. Friends do not know of his misfortune and disgrace.
Got only seven dollars to return to Monroe from the prison
and a suit of clothes. I gave him fare to Buffalo where he
would be provided for and money, altogether about nine dol-
lars. He promised to write to me. Will he do it?
December 4. Sunday.--In church it occurred to me that it
is time for the public to hear that the giant evil and danger
in this country, the danger which transcends all others, is the
vast wealth owned or controlled by a few persons. Money is
power. In Congress, in state legislatures, in city councils, in
the courts, in the political conventions, in the press, in the pulpit,
in the circles of the educated and the talented, its influence is
growing greater and greater. Excessive wealth in the hands
of the few means extreme poverty, ignorance, vice, and wretch-
edness as the lot of the many. It is not yet time to debate about
the remedy. The previous question is as to the danger--the
evil. Let the people be fully informed and convinced as to the
evil. Let them earnestly seek the remedy and it will be found.
Fully to know the evil is the first step towards reaching its
eradication. Henry George is strong when he portrays the
rottenness of the present system. We are, to say the least, not
yet ready for his remedy. We may reach and remove the diffi-
GROWING POWER OF WEALTH 355
culty by changes in the laws regulating corporations, descents
of property, wills, trusts, taxation, and a host of other impor-
tant interests, not omitting lands and other property.
FREMONT, OHIO, December 4, 1887.
DEAR SIR:--I am glad to hear from you that you are at
home and well. It will give me pleasure to hear from you
fully occasionally. I hope you will be careful of your health
and habits. I hope your friends are well and good friends to
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MR. A. H. HALE,
Batavia, New York.
December 10. Saturday.--Returned yesterday from Co-
lumbus. A most agreeable visit at Laura's, with all things more
charming, if possible, than usual. The general, Fanny, Jean,
and John, all interesting. Fanny Fullerton in excellent health;
good accounts of all the darling young folks.
The business of the meeting of the university board was im-
portant and somewhat critical. But all points of difference with
the experiment station were talked over between the two boards
and so adjusted in a friendly spirit that there is good reason for
the hope that the farmers of the State will be content with the
university as an institution for practical education, and give it
a support hitherto denied to it. Colonel Brigham, president of
[the] State Board of Agriculture, with Mr. Ellis, Mr. Stevens,
and Mr. Thorne -- all of the experiment station and represent-
ing the farmers especially--took part with the university
board in all of the negotiations looking to a settlement of dif-
ferences. I hope for the best. As the results were largely my
work as a peacemaker on liberal principles, I am very solicitous
that all may turn out well.
I read an article on the labor question in the National Bap-
tist, December 8, which set me to thinking of the unfair ad-
356 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
vantages given to the very wealthy in the practical administra-
tion of the laws. Is this not true -- That in proportion to the
value of their estates the extremely wealthy pay far less taxes
than those of moderate means? Compare the amount paid by
millionaires with the amount paid by ordinary citizens. I be-
lieve that in proportion to their estates they pay less than half
as much as ordinary citizens, whereas they ought to pay more.
On my way down to Columbus I made an agreeable acquain-
tance with the superintendent of the new insane asylum at To-
Also, on return, with Isaac 1). Smead of Toledo--a builder
of ventilating furnaces and the like.
Rev. John Henry Pitezell, of Three Rivers, Michigan, since
1862, was preacher in Lower Sandusky August 1835 to Sep-
tember 1836. Preached in upper part of the old frame church,
corner of Garrison and Arch Streets. John Kinnear was
preacher in charge. Don't recall any brick houses in town.
No pickets at the fort. Same church members as in time of
Kellam. Bartlett in a liquor place as clerk. Got an anony-
mous letter supposed to be inspired if not written by him. Soon
after Bartlett left the church. In that day went Sunday morn-
ing ten miles [to] Mud Creek and preached at 10:30; thence
to Port Clinton and preached in the afternoon. In the evening,
about three miles down the lake, preached again. The active
men in the church were Hawkins, Bowlus, Beck, Priors, Main.
Preached at twenty-three or twenty-fours places, viz., Lower
Sandusky, at White's, Port Clinton, Peninsula, Portage (three
places), two in Black Swamp, east side of river up at David
Gray's, an old preacher (died at Findlay a few days or weeks
ago), at Treat's, Green Spring, at Butternut Ridge, east of
Green Spring, near Bellevue, Mr. Croft's a stone house, north
of Bellevue, Hamer's Corners, Stephenson's, three miles from
Hamer's Corners towards Sandusky, and a settlement in the
woods where "we used hickory torches to light us through the
woods." "Early candle-light" was the time of meeting, with tal-
low candles for light.
Born in Frederick County, Maryland, fifteen miles from
Frederick, Graceham, April 18, 1814. Left in 1823; came with
TRIBUTE TO WILLIAM HENRY SMITH 357
father to Ohio in Licking County, five miles west of Granville,
New Alexandria. Five years there; then to Tiffin in 1829.
Lived there five years. An apprentice five years with Jacob
Huss, a saddler. Then to Norwalk in 1834. Rev. John Edward
Chaplin, principal of the seminary.
Chaplin drunk at a meeting, converted. At Norwalk a year
or more. Bishop Harris a student. He taught school at Hunt's
Corners. "I worked at a saddler's in Monroeville and taught
in Seneca County thirty scholars for twelve dollars per month."
In April 25, 1835, licensed to preach, John H. Power, pre-
siding elder. Went to Lima circuit--twenty-two appointments
-- one hundred dollars per year. Some presents -- ten dollars or
twelve dollars. Fully paid; a suit of jeans also. Here one hun-
dred dollars per year.
December 15. Thursday.--William Henry Smith, my old-
time near friend in Cincinnati thirty years ago or more, and
ever since, came Tuesday evening. Spent Wednesday and last
evening. We went over to Toledo together and visited Birch and
Mary until his departure for Cincinnati. An able writer, a
most capable man of affairs, a wise public man, and with an
industry and perseverance rarely equalled. He has aided me
more in my public life than any other man.
Met Lucy as I returned from Toledo today in town. Found
a young clerk in one of our clothing stores, Mr. Boalt, under
the care of Lucy at our home, as an invalid recovering from
a fever. Good woman!
December 17. Saturday.--"One secret of keeping young,"
says Rev. T. L. Cuyler, "is to keep at work, touching life at as
many points as possible." Old men, men who have passed "the
dead line of fifty," have done often their best work long after
middle life: Milton, Wesley, Franklin, Gladstone, Bismarck,
Bancroft, Storrs, Adams (J. Q.), Stevens (Thad).
December 18. Sunday.--President Hitchcock says: "We
mean that our boys and girls shall be able to teach something
besides the blue-backed speller."
The delusion of the past in all our schools and colleges has
been that there is no mental training except in books, while in
358 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
fact the best intellectual culture is to be found in learning how
to use skilfully the eyes and hands.
SPIEGEL, December 18, 1887.
MY DARLING:--Your mother last evening went over to
Toledo to spend Sunday with Mary and Birch. She went in
response to an urgent appeal from the children. They find
their new house not yet nearly finished. Little matters essential
to comfort are turning up to view every day to be changed or
put in. Webb made his first visit to the new home last Sunday.
He came back in a very complimentary mood. Their house, he
says, is the finest of its class (the giddy sort, called Queen
Anne); none superior, or even equal, to it, he says, either in
Toledo or Cleveland. As soon as the workmen get out of it,
they are coming to make us a two weeks' visit.
We shall have a gay time holiday week. . . . I send you
an Advocate and [a] Zion's Herald to keep up your Methodism.
If you don't read them you can show them, as pirates show
the colors of great nations(!), to prove your character! On
reflection, I fear the Zion's Herald will give too much sectarian
news for one week, and I therefore send you the Cincinnati
Gazette to furnish a dish of politics and agriculture.
We had a good visit from my old friend and staunchest and
most efficient political supporter, Honorable William Henry
Smith, the chief manager of the Associated Press. He is a
good historical writer of the semipolitical, semiphilosophical
cast. He is now meditating, when all his ships get in making
him independent, two works, "The Political History of the
United States from the Organization of the Government down
to the War for the Union," and "The History of the Hayes
Administration." Meanwhile, he is working up the almost des-
perate struggle against Blaine's second nomination. He prefers
Sherman, and is very hopeful of victory for Sherman. But
failing that will take Sheridan, Harrison, Gresham, Hawley,
or "anybody" to beat Blaine. It still looks to a calm outsider
(to-wit your paternal) as if the Plumed Knight can get the
nomination if he wishes it, and as if his friends will find it
TRIBUTE TO WILLIAM HENRY SMITH 359
not difficult to persuade him that a second race is necessary
for his vindication. No doubt, Mr. Cleveland's free trade mes-
sage has brightened Republican prospects. For more than
twenty years existing legislation has enticed capital and labor
into manufactures. This is especially true of these last few
years. To strike them down now at a blow looks like cruelty
and bad faith. It will hardly be done. But something too much
of this. The paternal cannot expect this to be read without
I relieve your patience with good wishes to all at [the] Hast-
Affectionately, my dear "Sister,"
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
December 23. Friday. -- We met at the Board of Trade
room to begin subscriptions for the Lakeside and Islands Rail-
road at 2:30 P. M. Mr. White looked and spoke in a discour-
aging way. I think for some reason he is opposed to the en-
terprise. He showed the necessity for delay until after the
holidays. Finally it was understood that after the holidays work
would begin. He subscribed one thousand dollars. As the
largest property-owner in the town, he would get the largest
benefit from the growth of the town. If favorable to the proj-
ect he would have given at least three thousand dollars. If
he is against it, to raise the thirty-five thousand required is sim-
ply an impossibility. I hope we may somehow get it.
December 25. Sunday. Christmas.--Clear; a thin veil of
snow only; lovely winter weather.
Rev. Parker P. Pope preached two good sermons. Quiet;
no dancing around the pulpit, no low, whispered tones, no strain-
ing of the voice, no elaborate gestures; a natural, straightfor-
ward delivery of weighty matter. In the morning, Christ's love
for men; in the evening, all things changing but a longing for
stability and rest, which can only be gratified and supplied by
the Future of the Bible.
360 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL GROVE, December 26, 1887.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--I have just received from your son
Horace the beautiful sword and sash voted to you at the Ladies'
Catholic Orphans' Fair in Memphis, November 1864, and by
you now presented to the Birchard Library. This souvenir of
the appreciation of your administration as commander of the
district of Memphis in a time of difficulty and peril will be a
most acceptable and precious addition to the treasures of the
library, and your generous and thoughtful action will be an ex-
ample which will no doubt be often imitated. The sword will
be preserved with care and placed where it will remind all who
visit the library of your honorable record, both as a soldier in
the field and also as military governor of the important city of
With admiration and friendship.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES,
PRESIDENT BIRCHARD LIBRARY.
GENERAL RALPH P. BUCKLAND,
December 30. Friday.--We celebrated the thirty-fifth anni-
versary of our wedding by visiting Birchard and Mary on their
first anniversary of the like event. For us it should be and is
a happy day. Rarely occurs a happier union than ours. Fanny
is far away in the storm-vexed Bermudas or our felicity would
indeed be complete.
December 31. Saturday. -- First day's sleighing on the last
day of the year. Electric lights on the streets for the first time
FREMONT, OHIO, December 31, 1887.
DEAR SIR:--The facts you refer to are no doubt in the main
correct. The relic of the old Vermont home will go with sim-
ELECTRIC LIGHT NEW YEAR'S EVE 361
ilar souvenirs. The date of removal given you is an error. My
parents had been five years in Ohio when I was born.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
LAURENCE F. BOWER,
SPIEGEL, December 31, 1887.
MY DEAR FRIEND: -- The Comly tribute is in all respects ex-
cellent and will adorn the book. We have a merry household of
young neyphews and nieces "(one [once] removed)," from Co-
lumbus spending with us the holidays. The boys with their can-
nons and the girls with their dolls are no more joyous than the
Mrs. Smith and Allie [Mrs. Charles Richard Williams] will
be more than welcome. They must not postpone too long. Our
days are waning. We entered our thirty-sixth year of wedded
life yesterday! And you have done your share of work for
others. Now is the time to work for your own pleasure and
fame, and at the same time for the instruction and happiness
of others. Sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, December 31, 1887.
MY DEAR SIR:--I am in receipt of your esteemed favor of
the 26th instant. The honor conferred by the invitation of the
Honorary Commissioners is, I assure you, highly appreciated.
With serious doubt of my ability to fitly discharge the duty
assigned to me, I am yet inclined to accept the invitation. I
have other engagements for the first week in October, and
for two or three days in each of the months of August and
September. The two latter, I can probably fix at such dates as
I prefer. I will be glad to hear from you as to the probable
time of the "Ohio Day," and also as to any other addresses,
poems, or other literary work relating to the celebration. Of
362 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
course, originality and novelty are not to be expected, but it
often happens on such occasions that there is an excess of ora-
tory, history, and poetry which makes the closing or later ex-
cises too stale to be comfortable for those who are at the foot
of the program.
On hearing from you again as to date, etc., etc., I will
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
A. L. FRAZIER,
SPIEGEL, January 1, 1888.
MY DARLING:--This is my first writing of 1888 and you
see I came near getting it 1887. So we all wish you and "you
all" a happy new year.
Here a big snow fell Thursday night on roads frozen solid
and reasonably smooth. One day of sleighing, and then a warm
thaw Saturday. No snow this morning and now a clear freez-
ing day again! Even temperature you see.
A happy week with John G. [Mitchell] Jr., Laura, Dorothy,
and Rutherford all here. The finest young folks in the world
-outside of Bermuda. . . .
I send you no presents. Buy what you would like and call it
from Lucy and self. We are getting more and more tired of
life without you.
We have had a jolly Sunday dinner. Webb in his best spirits
and your mother in hers made it a lively and joyous time.
Your mother delighted the young people, all, for that matter,
all of us, with her stories told in her happiest way of Miss
Baskeval and her punishments, her teaching of manners, and
her gait. . . .
Affectionately, your "paternal,"
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
THE HOLIDAYS 1887-1888 363
SPIEGEL, January 3, 1888.
MY DEAR GUY:--Our holiday season has been a happy one,
and your letter added to the joy. With Laura's only son, John
Mitchell, and Fanny Fullerton's equally interesting young folks
viz., Laura, Dorothea, and Rutherford, our house was full of
youthful cheerfulness and merriment from Christmas to New
Laura B--in Cleveland! We will write to her and hope
she can make us a visit. I think I told you Fanny was spend-
ing the winter in Bermuda at Mrs. Hastings' island home. We
are lacking young ladies in our household. The only drawback
here is the limited young society. We and ours go to the cities
near us a great deal.
How fast we are getting on! Birch has a son Rutherford.
Ruddy Platt has a son William A. Platt.
I am quite busy with duties, correspondence, etc., etc., be-
nevolent, educational, and public. As long as my health con-
tinues good, this is probably best, but sometimes I am over-
worked. I shall be ready to go to my rest when my time comes,
be it never so soon.
I hear of the illness of Mrs. Ballinger with sympathy and
deep regret. I never fail to recall the delightful days on the
Brazos when she was such a vision of loveliness!
We shall be ever so glad if you can contrive to spend a time
with us. We are always ready.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
GUY M. BRYAN,
January 11, 1888. Wednesday.--A meeting at White's
office on the new railroad. Not of much public spirit. Haynes,
West, and Bush were decidedly favorable. Tillotson, against.
White not decided or hearty but rather friendly. I expect he
looks for and probably hopes for failure.
January 12. Thursday.--Received the report in five vol-
umes of the Royal Commissioners of Great Britain on technical
364 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
instruction. Mr. William Mather's report on technical instruc-
tion in the United States is the part of this report which is
especially interesting to us. It contains much that is worthy of
January 13. Friday.--Another railroad meeting in White's
office. Another resolution to go ahead and raise what subscrip-
tions we can. Mr. Brannan still insists on twenty-five thousand
dollars, but we hope a less sum will bring it.
January 14. Saturday.--Accounts from the West tell of
the severest storms since the prairie country was settled. Da-
kota, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota all swept by blizzards.
Wind forty to fifty miles an hour, mercury 40 degrees or more
below zero, and blinding snow. Think of hunting for lost
school children--ten men holding to a hundred feet of rope
and sweeping in line in groups to find them!
January 17. Tuesday. -- [This] afternoon I went over to
Toledo with the portraits I had obtained through Colonel
Nicholson of General Comly and to prepare for the memorial
I am to publish in his honor. The portraits were very satis-
factory to the family. I spent the afternoon with Mrs. Comly
and Susie looking over the scrapbooks and papers of the gen-
eral to select a few pieces showing his characteristics as a
writer. A little difficult to do it. His personality was so iden-
tified with his editorial work that no editorial or other essay
seems quite equal to what we have been accustomed to see
from his pen.
January 19. Thursday.--Last evening General and Mrs.
Buckland celebrated their golden wedding. Mrs. Buckland
whose mind has been clouded for some years seemed more nat-
ural and cheerful than I have seen her for a long time. In-
deed, she was almost herself again and enjoyed and appreciated
the occasion. The guests, about twenty-five, were the "old set-
tlers," as a rule. . . . All passed off unexpectedly well.
January 20.--Last evening presided over the campfire of
Manville Moore Post in the city hall. Captain E. M. Colver
made the address. A good account and eulogium on the cavalry
PARAGRAPHS OF PRACTICAL WISDOM 365
of the war. The star event was the fight between Wade Hamp-
ton and "Little Kil" [Kilpatrick] near the close of the war in
January 21. Saturday.--Two degrees below zero! The
most terrible reports of death and suffering at the West. Noth-
ing equal to it in the settlement of the country.
January 26. Thursday.--Tuesday to Cleveland to attend
the inauguration of Dr. Haydn as President of Adelbert. After
hearing him, [the board] passed resolutions that he wished,
returning to the old idea of boys and young men alone. The
special situation at Cleveland and the endowment of Adelbert
fully justified the action taken by the trustees in my judgment.
In common all friends of the old college and of the Western
Reserve University have great reason to rejoice that the institu-
tion has secured as its head a man of distinguished talents, en-
thusiasm, and devotion to any work he undertakes. Under
the presidency of the Rev. Dr. Haydn, we may confidently
hope that the institution will be greatly prospered.
As to the delivery of the keys and the address which is ex-
pected in connection with that ceremony, it gave me an oppor-
tunity to practice what I habitually try to teach, viz., that all
programs for such occasions are apt to be too long and should
be cut down from one-third to one-half. Surely the audience
after listening to Dr. Haydn did not want more speaking.
THOUGHTS ON VARIOUS TOPICS.*
There is one sure way of attaining happiness, it is this: A
sincere and unrelaxing activity for the happiness of others.
Revolutions and "bolts" are alike. They are sacred when the
facts justify them. When not so justified they are blunders
of the sort that is worse than crime!
The happiness of the home, of old age, of middle life as well
how largely does it depend on the young of the household!
*Recorded in the Diary, volume 20.
366 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
If they are worthless, what misery! If they are full of prom-
ise, what serene joy!
Give the young wide diversity of education. There are tal-
ents buried in every neighborhood.
The end and object of manual training is to make our young
people able and willing to work with their hands; to give them
habits of labor, -- willing to put on their old clothes and work --
not merely willing to work but enjoying work.
Among the essential advantages of all industrial training,
on the farm or in the shop, these two are the chief: It forms
habits of labor; it gives skill and knowledge in labor. Now, for
the farmer's boy or girl these are secured at the college and the
special skill of the farmer is continued and extended in the va-
cations of two or more months.
On what ground do free schools stand? Our government rests
on the intelligence and virtue of the people. Without free
schools we cannot have intelligence and virtue.
On the one hand, Europe sends us labor, ignorant and de-
graded. On the other, it sends faith in money. Money is might
and might makes right. The remedy is, mix brains with labor.
Intelligent labor is safe, is conservative, is virtuous.
The average professional man is apt to be the last to accept
any reform appertaining to his profession. "What is, is per-
fect." But in this case the professional scholars of best repute,
both as instructors and as examples of the higher education,
are friends of the reform.--President Gilman of Johns Hop-
kins, President Payne of Wesleyan University, at Delaware,
President Scott of Ohio State University, etc.
The new education does no harm. It means physical health,
steady nerves, the ability to sleep when sleep is needed. While
PARAGRAPHS OF PRACTICAL WISDOM 367
to neglect the new education, to do without bodily exercise,
means the opposite of all of these things.
You give your boy over to laziness, give him an easy time,
and you will make a monkey of him. Give him habits of in-
dustry, give him a hard time, and you will make a man of him.
Vast accumulations of wealth in a few hands are hostile to
labor. Their tendency is to break down fair competition, to
build up monopoly, to corrupt politics, to bribe conventions,
legislative bodies, courts and juries, to debauch society; and
[even] churches are not beyond the reach of their baneful in-
SPIEGEL, January 27, 1888.
MY DARLING:--After leaving you I went to the [Toledo]
Commercial office [and] had a long confidential talk with Mr.
Pelton, the business partner of the Comlys. It was interesting
and on the whole encouraging for the family. Called on Mrs.
Comly. She was out on a visit. Susie, Guy, and Smith dined
me agreeably. A fine and interesting family.
Got to the train just in time. Failed to see Birchard. At
home found the enclosed from Webb. His direction in this
instance, you will decide as you prefer. Perhaps it is best to
obey. But whatever you do will be "discreetest, wisest, best."
All well at home.
MRS. HAYES, RUTHERFORD.
January 29. Sunday.-Began preparations to speak off-
hand at Jefferson to the farmers. Two points I must repeat and
emphasize: I. The value of instruction in all skilled labor.
2. The importance of the Ohio State University as a normal
school in skilled labor and natural science. We must have
teachers specially prepared to teach the sciences pertaining to
368 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL, January 29, 1888.
MY DARLING:--Your mother left for Cincinnati Friday in
excellent health and spirits. Indeed this lovely winter has
seemed to build her up in all ways.
We have had none of the storms that have been so severe
both West and East. We now have excellent sleighing and
bright weather. We are apprehensive that when the snow goes
off we may have floods again.
Mary and Rud gave a young folks' party of about fifty or
sixty that was very successful. You will notice by the cutting
from the News a good many new names. Many of them are
a valuable addition to our society. They are the newcomers
in the recent manufactures, which natural gas has brought in.
Rud has at last, I think, a pretty good picture of your
nephew. I hope he can print some in time for this mail.
You still say nothing of returning home. I fear such ex-
cessive gaiety. Do not stay so long, nor keep the floor so many
times at the dances. It is not well in any respect. . . .
Lovingly, your father,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
FREMONT, OHIO, January 31, 1888.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--Your article on Mr. Horton is so ex-
cellent that I can't wait until I have time to write a letter be-
fore telling you of the gratification it gives me. He was a
noble genleman, and you have nobly portrayed him.
How fine the photograph of Horton is. Thanks, thanks.--
Kindest regards to the boy and his mother.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
GENERAL M. F. FORCE,
FREMONT, OHIO, February 7, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR:--By reason of absence from home, I have
only just received your esteemed favor informing me of the
FREMONT METHODIST CHURCH BURNED 369
invitation for February 22d with which the [Ohio] House of
Representatives has honored me. I beg you to receive my thanks
for your kind note, and to assure you of the pleasure it will
give me to attend the meeting of the 22d, and confer with all
who are interested in manual training as part of our educa-
tional system in school and college.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
February 8. Wednesday.--A long list of interesting events
since the first.
1. Thursday, 2d, with Lucy made a five days' visit to Mr. and
Mrs. D. Z. Norton, Cleveland. A finer visit never made.
2. Friday to Jefferson--at Mr. H. Talcott's to dinner. After-
noon spoke almost two hours to the Ashtabula County Farm-
ers' Institute. Evening, hand-shaking and a little talk in the
rink to the G. A. R. and an entertainment at the Giddings
Post; ladies and comrades. A call on Mrs. Wade, and spent
the evening and night with Hon. ---- Howland, Mrs. Howland,
and son. Exceedingly pleasant.
3. Sunday, called on Captain Kendall and heard the scan-
dalous story which touches nearly the Loyal Legion; agreed to
meet General Leggett and General Barnett to deal with it. An-
other happy day with our attractive friends the Nortons and their
4. Monday, 12 M., met General Leggett and General Barnett
at General Leggett's office and heard General Voris' story. All
agreed [on] a letter written [and] entrusted to me which it is
hoped will prevent publicity of the affair.
[At] 3:35 P. M., started home. Soon were informed by
Judge Lemmon that our elegant little church at home was afire!
Hoped the report was untrue. But as we approached home the
details were against hopes. Our church burned completely!
Met that evening in Finefrock's office and resolved to re-
build at once; to take up subscriptions. The old building com-
mittee to act again, viz., June, Bristol, Stierwalt, Dudrow, Sieg-
fried, -----, and myself.
370 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Tuesday, [the] 7th, began to circulate subscription. Dick
Tobin, Irish Catholic drayman, paid over the first cash--one
February 9.--Our pastor, J. Stierwalt, and myself had a
meeting to talk over plans for rebuilding our burned church
last evening. We agree that the unburned walls etc., are worth
for the new building five thousand dollars. Insurance expected
on building, ten thousand dollars. We should have to pay in
full not less than seven thousand dollars -- [a total of] twenty-
two thousand dollars. We considered some changes. . . .
[But decided] the audience room and general appearance to re-
main nearly or exactly as before.
February 10.--Spent the day in Toledo. Dined with Mrs.,
Guy, Stewart, and Susie Comly. Finished for the printer the
memorial to the general. Found Mr. Bristol at the depot [on my
return]. The adjusters want something--that is, to shirk their
liability or to haggle about the amount of the [church] losses.
They can't afford to adhere to such a course.
Poor Hoadly! At the dinner on Tilden's birthday he spoke
of me as "the usurper." He can't get that awful snub of the
Electoral Commission, "Aye, none, Nay, 15," on his Oregon ras-
cality, out of his memory.
February 11.--The church affairs still occupy our time. The
insurance men today allowed the full amount of the policies--
ten thousand dollars on building, one thousand dollars on organ,
and five hundred dollars on parsonage.
February 12. Sunday.--The Presbyterians having offered
to share their church with us, we (Methodists) united with them
and filled their large church with a great congregation. Mr.
Barnes preached a very notable sermon on the Divinity of
Christ. Mr. and Mrs. Bristol and their youngest daughter spent
a cheerful hour with us.
SPIEGEL, February 12, 1888.
MY DARLING:--The event of the week is the burning of our
beautiful little church Monday, 6th of February, soon after
FREMONT METHODIST CHURCH BURNED 371
noon. We were on our way from Cleveland in the cars when
we heard of it. The preacher's family, we found in our house
when we reached home. The parsonage wrecked by the church
wall falling on it. Hannah Day was upstairs in the parsonage
and was driven through two floors into the cellar and bricks,
etc., four or six feet piled on her. Not seriously hurt! We re-
build at once, but it has been a busy time for Lucy. Of course
I am also "in the suds."
When you return Lucy will meet you in New York. Per-
haps I will accompany her. Do not push things about a return.
Make the time agreeable to our friends. We are hungry to
see you, but can wait until the suitable time.
The boy improves, as you will see by the latest photo. -- With
ever so much love.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
February 13. Monday.--At night in the rink, attending the
"carnival" of the Catholics of St. Joseph's Church, Rev. S.
Bauer. A great crowd of happy people--handsomely handled
by Father Bauer. I made a short speech in response to the
toast, "The Glorious American Principle of Religious Liberty
and Equality," It was well received. The whole affair was
successful. Dr. John Rice made a philosophical and humor-
ous speech on the German element of our population. Only
one fault, the common fault--"too long." I suggest shorten-
ing the programme fifty per cent in all cases. Fix a time to ad-
journ--not later than eleven--and push things. Work up to
SPIEGEL, February 19, 1888.
MY DARLING:--Our cousins Ed Cook and Nellie are with
us. Lucy and I go with them tomorrow morning as far as Co-
lumbus to visit Laura, Fanny, and the rest. I will preach on
my hobby to the Legislature--viz., on industrial education.
372 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Birch and Mary with the boy, after spending with us more
than a month, have returned to their own home. The boy grows
and gains in all ways. . . .
Our Presbyterian friends receive us with good feeling and the
two congregations fill the large church gloriously.
We start at 9 A. M. tomorrow. Some packing, and our
cousins may stop this letter here. If so we all love you dearly
and long for your return.
Ever affectionately, your father,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
February 26.--On the 20th with Lucy via Toledo to Colum-
bus. A happy visit, very. On the unanimous invitation of the
House of Representatives, [I] addressed them the evening of
the 22nd on industrial education. Satisfactory. Indeed it was
received with enthusiasm. Dined with Charles Dudley War-
ner at Laura's. One of Lucy's best times at Columbus. [On
the] 24th, Friday, returned to Toledo. Spent the night at
Birchard's. The new house is made home--beautiful home--
by the furnishing, carpets, papering, etc., etc. Mary, as always,
At Columbus found the boom over after a few weeks of
rush. Prices up to present conditions the result.
SPIEGEL, Monday Morning, February 27, 1888.
MY DARLING:--At this moment the mercury is just above
zero--two degrees. Clear and beautiful morning. We begin
to look for winter to wind up with a feeling that we have had
enough. Last week there were a few days warm enough. We
talked of spring! . . .
I go to Cleveland to stir up the Methodist alumni of the col-
lege at Delaware on the subject of work--a department of
work in the university. We are still you see busy at semipub-
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT DELAWARE 373
We hope to meet you in New York when you return, and
escort you home. You do not yet indicate the day. When the
spring weather was down upon us we thought strongly of or-
dering the young lady home. But this frozen term closes our
mouths. We love you all the same. And shall not be up to the
full mark of happiness we are entitled to until we hear your
voice ringing through the house. Spiegel misses you!
Your mother says she loves you very much and is getting
very homesick for you. "Besides, doesn't Cousin Emily feel
like starting" you?
With all love.--Your affectionate paternal,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
March 1. Thursday. -- I returned from Cleveland last eve-
ning. While there the 28th, Tuesday, I spoke at a meeting of
alumni of Wesleyan University in favor of manual training.
A select audience. Professor Whitlock also spoke. He was
convincing and conservative. My broken remarks of thirty
minutes were well received. We will begin the experiment with
March 2. -- The ladies' supper for funds to rebuild our church
was a big success. Lucy busy about it for some days.
Besides feasting perhaps two hundred to three hundred citi-
zens at thirty-five cents each, they gave a supper to the I. O. O.
F. by McPherson Lodge. About fifty guests from Elyria and
elsewhere. A notable time, indeed. The three degrees and
initiation were given in capital style--the new team-work be-
ing used. A great fondness for dramatic work is one of the
deep-seated desires of the heart. It was done last night in good
taste, and with much genuine pathos.
March 3. Saturday.--I received a letter from N. E. Gray,
the ex-convict of Philadelphia, warmly thanking me for the
twenty-five dollars I sent him for the article on the Eastern
Penitentiary of Pennsylvania, which I had published by F. H.
374 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Wines in the International Record of Charities and Correction.
March 8. Thursday.--Yesterday I was at the meeting of
the board of Western Reserve University. We added a musi-
cal department to the institution. The gymnasium does not
walk off as it should. President Haydn does not, I suspect,
estimate at their worth the academies. Fifteen hundred dollars
is subsidy enough for the Green Spring Academy, but it is not
too much. It is money as well spent as any that the Adelbert
March 9. Friday. -- Finished a short talk for the Press Club
at Toledo. A cherful view of the newspapers as a whole with-
out flattery. Merely a sensible talk. The brevity and a spirited
reading will carry it off; a quiet statement that the newspapers
with all their faults are useful and important.
March 10.--The death of [the] Emperor of Germany at a
great age is the fact of the week. His heir, dying with cancer,
comes in as Frederick III.
March 11. Sunday.--Mayor Hewitt, of New York, is com-
plimented by the newspapers for brave words spoken on the
labor question. They are all in criticism of the Labor men.
Some obvious blunders of the leaders and mistakes in methods
are easily pointed out. But there is no bravery in it, and I sus-
pect not much wisdom. The real difficulty is with the vast
wealth and power in the hands of the few and the unscrupulous
who represent or control capital. Hundreds of laws of Con-
gress and the state legislatures are in the interest of these men
and against the interests of the workingmen. These need to be
exposed and repealed. All laws on corporations, on taxation,
on trusts, wills, descent, and the like, need examination and
extensive change. This is a government of the people, by the
people, and for the people no longer. It is a government of
corporations, by corporations, and for corporations. -- How is
March 12. Monday. -- Fifty-one years ago, a morning like
this, but the snow was perhaps ten or twelve inches deep, I
started in a sleigh, the stage on runners, Mr. Hinton, the great
LABOR AND CAPITAL PROBLEM 375
stage man of that day, in charge. Some eight or ten passengers
Reached Marion at dark. Passengers, tired, wanted to stop.
It was the regular stopping-place. Hinton saw that the south
wind was blowing and that soon the snow would melt leaving
us on bare ground. No wheels at Marion; must get on to Dela-
ware where he would find a coach on wheels. He said to the
landlord privately: "Give these people your best supper and
good strong coffee. I can manage them after they are well
fed." After supper all felt in good spirits. Hinton pleasantly
told them the situation. He said: "I can carry you on in the
morning on wheels, but it will be in uncomfortable road wagons.
It will be more comfortable to go on tonight." All changed
their minds. We reached Delaware after midnight with the
snow melting fast. When I awoke in the morning the sun was
shining brightly and there was not a particle of snow in sight.
March 13. Tuesday. -- The greatest storm, snow and wind, in
New York for thirty years or more [the historic blizzard] was
Sunday night and yesterday.
FREMONT, OHIO, March 13, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR:--I wrote you on the back of one of Judge
Lemmon's statements touching the toll-gates on the pike -- that
there was a general sentiment in favor of abolishing them. This
might be misleading. Indeed, I was myself mistaken as to the
extent to the opposition. I am in favor of the measure but I
find more opposed to it than I supposed. I therefore write to
request that you will not use my letter with other senators, or
allow it to be published.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE J. ZIMMERMAN,
March 15. Thursday.--We had a pleasant time at the [To-
ledo] Press Club entertainment [last night]. My speech was
well enough, perhaps even better than that. It was an attempt
to deal fairly with the newspapers; to recognize their value and,
376 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
without denying their shortcomings, to give them due credit as
part of our system of education and government.
March 16.--I am to respond to the sentiment, "The Irish
and the War for the Union," at the St. Patrick's festival, 17th
of this month--tomorrow night. Only a few words. The
attitude of Ireland towards America in the war, and Irishmen
as soldiers in the Union army. All governments were against
us. We were alone. No aid, no sympathy, but a constant
peril. A deceptive and malicious neutrality, or a dangerous and
March 17. Saturday.--The unexampled storm of wind and
snow that swept over the States from Washington to Portland,
Maine, and perhaps beyond, involving all of Pennsylvania, New
Jersey, New York, and New England, is the event of the week.
The St. Patrick's celebration by St. Ann's congregation was
excellent. A neat, good supper and good music, singing, reci-
tations, and speeches. We left at 10 P. M. I told stories of the
little Irishman of the Twenty-third.
SPIEGEL, March 19, 1888.
MY DARLING: -- . . . The weather here is and has been
superb--bright days are the rule. The gusty storms West and
East do not reach us. We leave the matter [the time of your
return] however entirely to you. Your mother says: "Bring a
large store of patience and cheerfulness" to bear with us all.
I am going to set you going in "manual training." That more
than ever is our pet hobby. Your mother and I enjoyed greatly
the Press Club entertainment at Toledo Thursday evening in
the opera house. The star feature of the occasion were tab-
leaux and exercises of the boys and girls of the Training School.
You see what you are coming to. The desire of my heart is
that you take this training in hand and become a "burning and
a shining" example of "M. T." . . .
Give Emily and the general our warmest regards.
MISS FANNY HAYES, RUTHERFORD B. HAYES
GENERAL CROOK'S PROMOTION 377
FREMONT, OHIO, March 20, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR:-- . . . Our friend General Crook is, I
am sure, the man to take the place of General Terry, if the lat-
ter retires as is now expected early in April.
I believe General Crook is the senior brigadier. His appoint-
ment will be especially gratifying to all who take an interest in
just and humane treatment of the Indian.
His attitude to Mr. Cleveland's Administration is not in his
way, and he is the most distinguished soldier named for the
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
THE CHIEF JUSTICE,
FREMONT, OHIO, March 20, 1888.
MY DEAR FRIEND: -- Can you do anything to help our friend
General George Crook? General Terry it is expected will re-
tire in a few weeks. If so the vacancy should be filled by the
best man. We know Crook as the brave and successful Indian
fighter of his time and what is better, as the true, judicious,
and reliable friend of the Indian. He is, I believe, the senior
brigadier and although no politician, he is a friend of Mr.
Cleveland's Administration. If you have any opportunity to
aid in bringing the facts to the President's attention, it will, I
hope, aid one of the best and most deserving officers in our
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
GENERAL CARL SCHURZ,
FREMONT, OHIO, March 21, 1888.
MY DEAR SIR: -- In reply to your favor of the 20th:--
1. The most important amendment to the National Consti-
tution, in my opinion, is to fix the Presidential term at six years,
and no eligibility for a second term.
2. Universal education by state authority where practicable,
378 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
and supplemented by National aid where needed. Compared
with this, money spent for fortifications and navy is wasted.
3. Industrial training to be part of the education of all the
young, of both sexes, and of all conditions.
4. Believing that the existing capital and labor troubles are
mainly due to the irresponsible power of wealth on one hand,
and of numbers on the other, the aim of reform should be to
bring both equally under the control of laws for the general
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
J. M. STURTEVANT.
March 22, 1888.--On the way over [to Toledo this morning,
I] read in the Detroit Free Press that the city council and
school board of Detroit would visit this morning the Manual
Training School of Toledo with a view to introducing the sys-
tem into the schools of that city. [I] decided to go to the school
and assist in their reception. At the school met Mr. Miller, Mr.
Macomber, Mr. Marx, and Mr. Scott who requested me to re-
main, to speak, etc., etc. After visiting all parts of the school,
viz., drawing rooms, cooking, millinery, wood-carving, and
other rooms of the young women, the carpenter, turning, black-
smith, etc., shops, the party assembled in the hall. I spoke in
behalf of the new education, acceptably, and Mr. Macomber,
one of the directors of the school, took the floor and in a con-
versational way gave a very intelligent and valuable account of
the school with full details. The building cost a trifle less than
forty thousand dollars; tools, engines, and equipment almost
twenty thousand dollars; yearly cost nine thousand dollars (a
little less). A satisfactory meeting.
Some opposition by Knights of Labor in Detroit. I said:
"If I did not [think] that industrial education was in the inter-
est of the workingman, I would lose my interest in it."
In the afternoon I went to Tontogany. Was the guest of
Samuel L. Irving, wife, two daughters and one son, a child of
four. Meeting of the G. A. R. in the Presbyterian Church.
LABOR AND CAPITAL PROBLEM 379
Snow deep, roads almost impassable from frozen mud and snow;
audience not large. Five of my old soldiers present. A half
dozen more who were in the Valley Campaign of Sheridan.
Told the story well enough, and could see that the audience
were pleased and enjoyed the talk to the end, one hour and
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