GARFIELD'S CHARACTER -- PROGRESS IN THE SOUTH--
LIBERALITY TO THE CHURCH -- DEVOTION TO THE
CAUSE OF EDUCATION -- PRESIDENT NATIONAL PRISON
ASSOCIATION -- PAYNE'S ELECTION TO SENATE BAD
POLITICS -- INTEREST IN WESTERN RESERVE UNIVER-
SITY -- THE CINCINNATI RIOT -- NOMINATIONS OF
BLAINE AND CLEVELAND -- 1883-1884
FEBRUARY 21. Wednesday.--I have just read President
Hinsdale's account of Garfield as a student and teacher.
Here was his strength. In both capacities he was a model. He
had large faculties, memory, analysis, fluency, the debating fac-
ulty. He was the best popular debater of his time. He was not
executive in his talents, not original, not firm,--not a moral
force. He leaned on others -- could not face a frowning world;
his habits suffered from Washington life. His course at various
times when trouble came betrayed weakness. The Credit Mobilier
affair, the De Golyer business, his letter of acceptance, and many
times his vacillation when leading the House, place him in an-
other list from Lincoln, Clay, Sumner, and the other heroes of
our civil history.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, February 23, 1883.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--I was lucky in letters yesterday. Not a
single bore, viz., a letter in which I take no interest, but to
which I must reply, and several good ones, capped by yours.
Mrs. Hayes' ill health was merely rheumatism. It left her in
excellent health and spirits.
The hope of your coming to Toledo will keep me in "such
spirits." I do not know Bottelle, but if his success is in your
way, down with him.
The Pond book is good. Your article is splendid.
PLANS FOR A NEW CHURCH 111
This writing is to say again, bring Mrs. Comly here and leave
her among the Christians of our grove while you go over to
meet the wild beasts at Ephesus.
R. B. HAYES.
GENERAL J. M. COMLY.
[March] 18. -- Fanny came home last night with Webb. She
is looking well and is full of animation. All of the family are
together at home this morning. The Methodist Episcopal breth-
ren decided to make an effort to build a new church at the offi-
cial meeting last week. I proposed three ideas which were
1. Church not to cost exceeding fifteen thousand dollars com-
2. No obligations to be incurred until four-fifths of the
estimated cost has been secured in reliable subscriptions.
3. A committee on collections to proceed with a canvass for
subscriptions as soon as plans are adopted.
4. A committee on plans; plan to be adopted by official board
before a canvass for subscriptions is made.
I shall add, "No debts more than three thousand dollars in
SPIEGEL GROVE, March 22, 1883.
MY DEAR S--: -- I am more than glad to get your talk about
the battle.* Your description is in penmanship and English
clean-cut. The fight was notable. I would listen eagerly to
full details. Perhaps when I come to New York next month --
about the twenty-fifth -- you can find time to waste an hour or
two on me in telling it. Such battles as you fought are the mod-
ern substitute for the combats of the crusaders, and of the gun-
powder fights of later times as well. Gould, Garrett, Vanderbilt
and such are our giants and warriors. They dwarf the gladiators
of the press, the pulpit, and the forum. You had a great triumph.
* A contest between the New York and the Western Associated Press, in
which the latter, under the generalship of Mr. Smith, was victorious.
112 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Of course nothing is ever final. "He shall keep who can." But
the past is secure and we rejoice with you.
By the by, what a growth you are making. I wonder if you
are conscious of it. That short article of yours on Randolph,
the "Krank," I read to Mrs. Hayes. She has an instinctive
judgment of such things that is almost unerring. She said:
"How good that is! It is better than he has done before--
better than anybody else." There is something in it.
If H- and H- write to you, you will try to do their work,
I hope. You needn't look to me. I write with a stiff pen. I
can move only by jumps. The gift, or the acquired faculty, of
a flow I never had. Too much self-knowledge stands in the
way of effort--of improvement--and the misfortune is, it
Comly's case is a hard one. I saw him in bed where he had
been lying a month--hopeful and cheery, bright and witty
Don't work too hard. Take warning by our friend. Remem-
ber us when you have time. We always have time to think of
you and yours.
With all good wishes to you all, sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
FREMONT, OHIO, March 23, 1883.
MY DEAR SIR: -- Your note inviting me to address the comrades
and citizens next Decoration Day at Piqua is before me. I
appreciate this renewed invitation, and would be glad to accept
if the situation would permit. May I do this? Let a speaker
be secured for the occasion, who will in any event make the
principal address. I will be present and make an offhand talk
after the formal address. If I go anywhere on that day away
from Fremont, I will be at Piqua. I will write you next month
or early in May more definitely. Let there be no announcement
of my coming until after you hear from me again.
[Unidentified.] R. B. HAYES.
ALTOGETHER OUT OF POLITICS 113
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, March 24, 1883.
MY DEAR MAJOR:--My thanks for your prompt and hearty
denial of the uncalled for charges of the News.. I cannot see
the excuse or the explanation for its assault. As you say, I am
in private life--and with no wish to leave it. As to the sug-
gestion that I may be nominated for next governor, it is enough
to say that on all suitable occasions (there is no reason to rush
into print) I inform everyone that I would not under any cir-
cumstances accept the nomination if it were offered to me.
You will perhaps be interested in hearing what I suppose to
be the explanation of this charge of parsimony. All who know
me understand how foreign it is from the truth. When wine
was excluded from the White House, there was a buzz both in
society and among the talkers in public resorts. A disappointed
office-seeker, who erroneously supposed he had failed by reason
of his convivial habits (the fact being that the place he wanted
was well filled already), saw his opportunity and explained the
reform at the White House as a measure of economy--due to
parsimony. Hence a host of falsehoods in that line. But too
much of this.
We are all in usual health, and were never more contented or
happier than now.
I hope Mrs. Bickham and your flock are in like condition.
Mrs. Hayes joins me in all good wishes to Mrs. Bickham and
R. B. HAYES.
P. S. -- Please regard this all as between ourselves. As in
fact I care very little for abuse, I do not want even to seem
otherwise by noticing it. -- H.
MAJOR W. D. BICKHAM,
March 27. Thursday. -- Last night a meeting of the trustees
and official board of our Methodist Episcopal church met with
114 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Dr. Mather in the basement of the church to discuss plans for
the proposed building. The Lima plan--the plan of the Pres-
byterian church at Lima--was generally satisfactory. Mr. June
came in during the evening and objected to it because it had no
basement. This was discussed, and to some extent he yielded.
Mr. Stairwalt was requested to prepare an estimate of the
cost of the Lima plan with an improved spire. Adjourned to
meet Monday night, two weeks hence. It was resolved to make
subscriptions binding on procuring nine thousand dollars sub-
scriptions on or before July 1.
FREMONT, OHIO, March 28, 1883.
MY DEAR SIR:--Your note of the 24th instant is before me.
I have not the least objection to stating my intention as to a re-
turn to public life, and am quite willing it should be generally
known. But I do not wish to publish nor to authorize the publi-
cation of anything on the subject.
When I left office two years ago, it was my intention not to
return to public life. I have seen no reason to change this pur-
pose and would under no circumstances accept the nomination
referred to in the marked article you have sent to me. This
I have said to all who have consulted me, and I think it is well
understood in the State.
My chief interest in pending public questions is on the subject
of education in the South -- particularly for the colored people.
Whatever I can do on this subject to promote favorable action
can best be done out of politics and out of public life.
I am gratified by the general tone of your articles on my
Administration and wish to assure you of my appreciation of
With best wishes, sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
MR. ALFRED T. WAITE,
ALTOGETHER OUT OF POLITICS 115
April 2. -- Fanny left this morning for her school in Cleve-
land. She is healthy and rosy, growing well. She plays beauti-
fully. Her mother's singing last night was as charming as
ever. Not artistic, I suppose, but I never heard finer. A happy
Friday, April 6, 1883. -- I returned from a Loyal Legion meet-
ing in Cincinnati on Wednesday. I met Colonel Corbin who
talked much of Garfield and his affairs. Garfield [he said] never
spoke of religion. His only reference to it was when Rev. Mr.
Powers (?) was either spoken of or called. He said: "I am will-
ing to stand by the account as it is made up."
Blaine and --- both began to trim their sails for places in
Arthur's cabinet as soon as it seemed likely that Garfield would
not live. Very soon after Garfield was shot, Blaine prepared an
able paper and read it to the Cabinet on the disability question,
showing that Arthur should assume the duties of the President,
for the time. Two members of the Cabinet only were of this
opinion. The paper was sent to Arthur in New York. It was
afterwards destroyed (?).
April 17. Tuesday. -- We go today to Kingston, Ross County,
to the funeral of Aunt Lucy. She was a good friend of ours --
a very sensible and efficient woman.
My reflections lead me to the idea that the practical good thing
for me to try to give the public is general education. With my
family affairs, my place, my town, and this as an object, I can
always be agreeably and usefully employed. I am averse to writ-
ing for the public; I am out of official life; but it seems to me I
can accomplish something in this direction.
April 21. Saturday.--We met thirty-seven Cooks, counting
the wives and husbands of Cooks, at the funeral of Aunt Lucy.
The Boggses were about thirty. The most of those present were
both Cooks and Boggses--about forty-five relatives in all--
mostly young people. A promising number of young people.
NEW YORK, April 25, 1883.
MY DARLING: -- I arrived on time yesterday morning at
10:30. The trip was pleasant, and the company very good. I
116 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
met, of course, people interested in you specially. One, an editor
of a Rochester paper, was really disposed to gush. He went so
far as to say, chiefly on your account, that "ex-President" sounded
so much like "next President" that he couldn't but think the
latter was in truth the equivalent of the former. But it stirred
no emotions in me and will not, I am sure, in you.
I will take an early breakfast this morning, and after it sally
out for a walk in the crisp, bright, frosty air. No doubt you
have the same frost, and I am trying to conjecture how much
mischief it has done in old Spiegel. If you inquire how it hap-
pens that I am up so early, I have only to remind you that you are
not with me. It is a just punishment for not fetching you with
me. I never come without you that I am not filled with remorse,
as Fan would say in her intense manner. I now, for the dozenth
time, resolve not to do so again.
I took tea with Charlie Mead's family last night. Kitty has
grown tall and handsome. It is a model family. They grow
on one. I told war stories. Little Lark said to his mother:--
"How much better they are than the foolish things in that old
'Guy Mannering' that you are reading to us."
I see no reason why I should not start home Friday, as I in-
tended, and be with you again Saturday night.
With ever so much, affectionately,
SPIEGEL, April 29, 1883.
MY DEAR S--:--I was called home suddenly Friday morning
by a dispatch from Rutherford that his mother was very sick.
I was relieved by a dispatch at Rochester that she was much
better, and on reaching home found the trouble gone and Lucy
in good spirits, and entirely rid of the trouble. I have told you
of the nature of the attacks--rheumatism or neuralgia of the
I received the dispatch indicating your return Friday morning
and had arranged to hunt you up and have a good time with
you Friday afternoon and evening. I am no doubt indebted to
you for a very enjoyable dinner with a distinguished company at
DEVOTION TO EDUCATION 117
Whitelaw Reid's. I was happier than at any New York dinner
when I was President.
I hope Mrs. Smith is well again. -- I had counted on a sum-
ming up with you. But better luck next time. I hope to go
again June 30 or July 2.
In haste. With all good wishes.
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
May 5. -- At home again. Left Cincinnati this morning about
8 A. M. Stepped on to my verandah as the clock struck 5 P. M.
via Columbus and Fostoria. Last night with Mrs. Herron went
to Music Hall to see Othello. The best night of the famous
dramatic entertainment. John McCullough as Othello, Barrett as
Iago, etc., etc. A noble spectacle -- the stage, the great audience.
May 7. A. M. -- Scott goes this morning to Green Spring to
attend the academy in the care of Rev. R. B. Moore. We are
all interested in fitting him out for his six weeks' experiment.
He can come home to spend Sunday; is only eight miles away.
But it is away from home. His first launch in the world alone!
This afternoon Lucy and I took Scott in the carriage with his
trunk, valise and carpet over to the academy. . . . We were
much pleased with the room. Lucy arranged Scott's little prop-
erty with her usual tact. The young gentleman seemed very
happy. After he had kissed us good-bye and we were off he
walked away from the hotel, where we parted, towards the acad-
emy in a manly way. But his mother watching him through the
small glass in the back curtain of the carriage saw him turn and
look after us, when [we] were almost out of sight! We shall
see him soon. Dear boy.
May 13. Sunday. -- The death of the Union heroes to their
fathers and mothers, wives and sisters -- to all of this generation
of their blood--is a life-long sorrow; to all of the future gen-
erations a life-long pride and joy.
118 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Monday, May 21, 1883. -- We have raised our church build-
ing subscription to ten thousand dollars and upwards. The build-
ing now goes on. Birchard and Webb think our dining-room
improvement should also go on.
Tuesday, 22. -- In the evening met with the trustees of the
Methodist Episcopal church; decided to begin building; author-
ized Mr. Stairwalt to take charge at three dollars per day for
time actually employed.
Received a letter from Musgrave, secretary of the stage
company, as to pay for Yosemite trip.
Wednesday, 30. Decoration Day. -- Left Columbus on train
for Piqua about 10 A. M. At Urbana, in the rain, Mr. J. O.
Neer, assistant collector internal revenue under General Ken-
nedy, and committee of invitation for Piqua G. A. R. joined me.
Reached Piqua soon after noon. A barouche drawn by four
splendid grays with an escort of the G. A. R. and band took
me to Colonel Orr's, corner of Green and Downing Street. Met
there Colonel Orr and the orator of the day, Captain E. Morgan
Wood, et al. The cemetery ground was reached after a nice
lunch at Colonel Orr's. It is a fine site and well improved. The
view of the valley of the Miami from the high grounds west of
the hydraulic canal was beautiful. Dr. Dorsey presided. Dur-
ing the delivery of Captain Wood's oration it rained cruelly,
but the audience with outspread umbrellas kept their places and
the gallant captain under very difficult and discouraging circum-
stances acquitted himself most creditably. I spoke offhand and
well enough, with the rain appeased, as long as seemed wise.
In the evening, Rev. Mr. Ely, Presbyterian, presided in his
church. Good singing of stirring army songs by Mrs. Barnett
and a good choir, all hands the chorus.
The short speeches were successful in that they did not bore
the people and that of Rev. Lyman J. Fisher was very felicitous,
and Hon. R. M. Murray was taking. On my suggestion he (a
Member of Congress) was instructed to support national aid to
education in the South. He accepted heartily and gave the
pledge. Slept and breakfasted at Colonel Orr's.
The drift of my talk was that Decoration Day is entitled to
DECORATION DAY AT PIQUA 119
be and to remain forever one of our national holidays. Also that
Lincoln was the Commander-in-chief and fell in battle! That
Decoration Day is therefore Lincoln Day. I quoted three verses
of George Alfred Townsend's poem before the Society of the
Army of the Potomac at Washington a few days ago.
COLUMBUS, OHIO, June I, 1883.
MY DARLING DAUGHTER:--We came from the Grove to
Laura's Tuesday. Lizzie accompanies your mother and is very
helpful. Wednesday I went to Piqua and had a part in very
agreeable Decoration Day ceremonies, both afternoon and eve-
ning. Yesterday I returned here. Your mother seems very
happy meeting old friends and acquaintances. We shall probably
remain until Monday, and then visit Mr. and Mrs. Herron dur-
ing the most of next week in Cincinnati.
I am made a little uneasy--not seriously, however--by the
mysterious intimation of your last letter to your mother. You must
curb your rebellious spirit. You inherit, I know, enterprise and
daring from a long line of Scotch borderers--the Scotts, the
Rutherfords, and the Hayeses. There are, I must tell you, a
basketful of reasons why a demure and subdued line of conduct
is most becoming in you. Your immediate ancestors, maternal
especially, have a place in the good opinion of good people not
to be imperilled by their children's wild oats without misgiving
and perhaps tears. Think of it, darling, and make us all happy
by your considerate and discreet conduct.
We found the dear ones here all just as we would wish them.
More of happiness and less of the opposite in their several cups
than often falls to the lot of mortals. Three better and more
promising and admirable children than Laura's are under few
roofs. Fanny Fullerton is greatly blessed also in the same way.
No more now from your loving father.
R. B. H.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
120 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, June 23, 1883.
MY DEAR SIR:--My absence from home has prevented an
earlier acknowledgment of the invitation to attend the Brooklyn
meeting to honor the seventieth birthday of your illustrious
townsman, Rev. Henry Ward Beecher.
I beg you to accept my thanks for the invitation. Please pre-
sent my congratulations and best wishes to Mr. Beecher, and
assure him of my very cordial sympathy with the object of the
Regretting that I cannot be present, I remain,
R. B. HAYES.
MR. CHARLES E. WEST,
June 27. Wednesday -- Attended meeting of Garfield Monu-
ment Board at Cleveland to fix the site of the monument. The
Cleveland members on account of the convenient access from
the city to a low knoll near the gateway entrance had a prefer-
ence for that. But on examination of the ridges further back, it
was decided on my motion to place it in [the] oats field on a
ridge near the southern end of the grounds. From this point
there is a noble view of the city and suburbs, and of Lake Erie
for many miles. The monument will be like a city set upon a
hill--in sight from land and lake. The matter was fully dis-
cussed, all the members present participating. My motion on
calling the yeas and nays was sustained as follows, viz.: Ayes;
Foster, Hayes, Payne, Perkins, Handy, Eels, Hay, Carson,
Townsend, Rhodes, Hurlbut--eleven. Nays; Wade -- one.
A pleasant talk with two young fellows, Herrick and Backus,
going to Chicago to be examined for Yale college.
A long and interesting conversation with Mr. Allen, secretary
of Mayor Low, of Brooklyn. He was enthusiastic in praise of
Mr. Low and his admirable executive reforms and ability in the
city affairs. He, Mr. Low, seems to be making an excellent
officer. He is showing how to govern a city. The plan seems
to be the one-man power and the one man fit for the place.
FOURTH OF JULY AT WOODSTOCK 121
July 1. Sunday.--Friday, Lucy and I went to Oberlin.
. . . We attended a reception to Dr. and Mrs. Warner of
New York at President Fairchild's. Met there Governor Cox,
General Nettleton, of Minnesota, Dr. Strieby, Professor Monroe.
In the evening Rev. Dr. Barbour, of Yale, delivered a weighty
address on the theology of Oberlin.
Saturday morning attended the commencement of the Theo-
logical Department. Felicitious speaking. I made a few offhand
remarks at the close which were well received. I emphasized
Oberlin's merit as a place where education of the best sort could
be got at small cost and spoke also of the pioneer work for co-
education, equal chance for the colored youth, and brave work
We start tomorrow for Woodstock, Connecticut, to spend the
Fourth at Roseland Park with Mr. Bowen.
ROSELAND PARK, WOODSTOCK, CONNECTICUT, July 7, 1883.
MY DARLING DAUGHTER:--Your mother and I have had one
of the to-be-remembered visits with Mr. and Mrs. Bowen, and
their large and delightful family. Seven stalwart sons from
thirty-five to fifteen, three daughters, all grown, make up their
treasures, if we leave out half a dozen grandchildren. Polo,
swimming, and driving are the diversions. We saw a little
dancing last evening.
Our important drive was twelve or fifteen miles to Putnam's
wolf den. It was a most enjoyable trip, and the historical den
is no way beneath its fame.
Your mother's best thing was her bath with "all the boys" in
the little lake at the park. It is a region of elegant homes and
fine people. . . . We have perhaps never enjoyed more a
trip and visit than this. For particulars, listen to our talk after
we return. . . .
With much love to all, affectionately,
MISS FANNY HAYES,
122 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
FREMONT, OHIO, July 16, 1883.
MY DEAR SIR: -- I thank you for the comments of the Eastern
press on the Woodstock [Fourth of July] speech. The question
discussed deserves attention. As a member of the board of
trustees of the Peabody Education Fund, and especially as one
of the trustees of the Slater Fund, it has been my duty to con-
sider it carefully. The trustees of the Slater Fund have reached
one conclusion which I deem of much importance, viz.: That
the schools to be encouraged should be prepared to instruct their
pupils in mechanical employments -- should teach not only what
is found in books, but the arts by which to make a living. The
failure to do this is a capital defect in our public school system.
R. B. HAYES.
FREMONT, OHIO, July 31, 1883.
MY DEAR AUNTY:--We are made happy to know you are
happy at the beautiful resort. We would come to you if we
could. We are sorry we can't. To come now would just suit
me, but other engagements and duties are in the way.
You know Lucy went to Chicago, and [you] will be glad to
learn that she enjoyed the meeting thoroughly.
I believe in Chautauqua and Dr. Vincent. It is a wise and
good work that he is doing. Success to it! He ought to be
grateful to me that I left his work well alone until I am rid of
the ill odor of political associations.
Be happy! With the love of all at Spiegel Grove to you and
Dr. Davis and Jack Herron to boot.
R. B. HAYES.
MRS. E. G. DAVIS,
August 11.--I have attended soldiers' reunions and spoken
often with fair success. Always well received. Judge Hoadly,
the Democratic candidate for governor, goes out of his way to
HOADLY'S SPITEFUL TONGUE 123
retail the slanders of my enemies. He is spiteful and untruth-
ful--a most reckless chatterbox. The Republicans found out
long ago, what the Democrats are now learning, that Hoadly's
tongue is a heavy load for a political party to carry. He tells
in an interview one new lie. He says I was made commander
of the Loyal Legion in Ohio by my trickery. I, in fact, had noth-
ing whatever to do with it, and did not know until the very
moment when it was done that any one would propose or had
thought of my name.
Mrs. Herron is very sick. Blood poisoning is feared. She
is still very beautiful but suffers extremely.
August 12.--Some one sends me the Nashville American
containing, August 3, another talk of Hoadly's. He is a spiteful
chatterbox and malicious gossip, who by the hour retails ex-
ploded slanders and stale lies about men who have been more
successful in public life than himself.
FREMONT, OHIO, September 7, 1883.
DEAR SIR:--I am in receipt of the circular of the central
committee of the Kentucky Educational Association dated the
5th instant, and regret extremely that an engagement of long
standing will prevent me from attending the convention in Louis-
ville on the 19th.
I earnestly hope that one of the important results of the con-
vention will be to strengthen the sentiment in favor of national
aid to popular education in the several States in proportion to
the necessity for such aid. Almost all of the States have estab-
lished by law suitable systems of public instruction. A consid-
erable number of them lack the pecuniary means to make their
school systems efficient. Universal education is the common
interest of the whole people. To promote it the whole people
should cheerfully contribute what is necessary from the treasury.
With great respect,
R. B. HAYES.
MR. WILLIAM J. DAVIS,
124 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
September 16, 1883. Sunday.--Mrs. John N. Jewett, of
Chicago, left us last night in the ten o'clock train after a charm-
ing visit of four days. She was an old schoolmate of Lucy.
They talked of old times joyously and often with deep feeling.
Mrs. Jewett has unusual taste in home adornment. We were in
the midst of a change to give us a bathroom next to our sleeping
room. Mrs. Jewett entered into the spirit of the work. She
did some famous things. The fine curtains of the Temperance
ladies were put up in the small parlor; the portraits of Lucy
were changed; one from my "den" to the library parlor, and
one from Fanny's chamber to my den; the white walls of my
den were papered with a rich dark red paper; the chimney jamb
in the hall was hung with swords and Indian and Japanese work
on a background of the same rich red paper; and finally the arch
in the dining room was arranged into a cabinet for bric-a-brac
in the same style. A mighty change for four days. Mrs.
Jewett's improvements will recall a charming woman and friend
for many years
September 26.--A cruel injustice has been done to a pure
and good man, an excellent preacher, and a true and devoted
Christian. Idle gossip about imprudent but not in the least licen-
tious conduct with women is the pretext. This leaves the church
which we have attended, and to which Mrs. Hayes belongs,
divided and inharmonious. This lack of unity and concord will
continue until repentance and reparation do their work in behalf
of our injured pastor or until time and changes in the leading
influences of the church restore harmony. Rev. D. D. Mather,
in the midst of the building of a new church, of which he was
the projector, has been driven away. I will not remain in a
congregation so divided. If proper feeling is again restored I
will return. I prefer the Methodist Episcopal church, but I
prefer still more peace. We have the congregations of other
denominations with whom we can, I think, live in peace.
FREMONT, OHIO, September 28, 1883.
MY DEAR BISHOP FOSTER:--I wish to add my statement to
what the committee will say:--
VINDICATION OF DEFAMED PASTOR 125
The injustice to our pastor is so plain and vital that not to
repair it, if possible, and to the extent that is possible, would be
criminal. It would be permanently disastrous, and seriously so,
to the church and to Methodism in Fremont.
No man can now consent to take the place of Mr. Mather
without, in the general judgment of people here, becoming acces-
sory after the fact to the wrong done.
These are my opinions after full reflection. The work of
calumny and misrepresentation ought not to stand. The good
name of a clergyman who has been clear in his office, and the
reputation of a pure Christian woman, in humble circumstances,
and a member of the church in good standing, require that what
has been done shall be undone.
With great respect.
R. B. HAYES.
BISHOP RANDOLPH FOSTER,
October 1, 1883.--At 8:05 A. M. with Lucy to Cleveland.
Also Elder Henderson and Kridler and Dr. Brinkerhoff to meet
Bishop Foster to procure a reversal of the decision of Conference
taking Rev. D. D. Mather from Fremont. The absurd gossip to
his prejudice was easily neutralized and the Bishop promptly
rescinded the order. This gave us great satisfaction.
Dined with Webb and Fanny at our kinsman's (Mr. Austin).
[At] 3:50 P. M., met at depot my ward Susan Platt and Alice
Porter, en route for Farmington; also Mr. and Mrs. Hatch and
four or six young ladies going to school at Vassar, New York,
and elsewhere. Mr. Austin also with us. A pleasant journey to
October 2.-- Reached Central Depot about 11:20 A. M.
Lucy with Mrs. Hatch to Fifth Avenue Hotel; I with Susan
and Alice to Farmington. Miss Porter not at home but Miss
Dows received us and showed us the rooms to be occupied. The
girls well suited and no homesickness. Reached [the] Fifth
Avenue 11 P. M.
126 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
[October] 3.--Peabody meeting. A good one. Banquet in
October 4.--Called at Bible House on Mr. Round. Favor-
ably impressed as to National Prison Association.*
October 9. -- Election day. I hope the Republican ticket will
succeed. While I shall not vote for the prohibition amendment,
I would like to see a good, wholesome expression of temperance
sentiment. The amendment would be something worse than a
dead letter. Its effect would be free trade in liquor. My own
work in temperance is on other lines. I criticize no well-meant
efforts in behalf of temperance. I find no fault with sincere and
earnest temperance people, even if I think they are misled. Their
discussions will help to educate the people. Personally, I do
not resort to force--not even to the force of law--to advance
moral reforms. I prefer education, argument, persuasion, and
above all the influence of example--of fashion. Until these
resources are exhausted I would not think of force.
The weather is fine--a summer day. The result [of the
election] cannot be attributed to the favorite reason of the "unco
guid," viz., bad weather.
FREMONT, OHIO, October 11, 1883.
DEAR MADAM:--Your note as to a cutting from the [Cleve-
land] Leader came during my absence. I am told that a sub-
sequent notice appeared showing sufficiently that the one you
refer to was wholly unauthorized. While I am fully satisfied
that temperance reform depends chiefly on education, example,
argument, and religion, I have taken no public part for or against
constitutional amendments. Unity and harmony among the
friends of temperance, are, in my judgment, of more importance
than particular measures.
MRS. N. B. GATES. R. B. HAYES.
*The association had been reorganized at Saratoga September 7, 1883,
with Mr. Hayes, president, William M. F. Round, secretary, and Theodore
THE TEMPERANCE CAUSE GAINS 127
October 12. -- We had an event last night. Our pastor of the
Methodist Episcopal church, Rev. D. D. Mather, in the absence
of his wife has been staying with us. Last night, however, he
was at Mr. House's in the country. But Elder Henderson, en
route for the East, chanced to come in to tea. Just before tea, at
early dark, a fine-looking young fellow called and asked for the
Methodist Episcopal minister, Mr. Mather. I told him Mr.
Mather was not here, but that another Methodist Episcopal min-
ister, Elder Henderson, was here. He asked to see him. I
invited the young gentleman into the library. He asked to see
Mr. Henderson with no others present. Soon Mr. Henderson
came, saying: "The young man wants me to marry him to his
lady love who is in the buggy waiting for him to come out. He has
a license and all seems well." I replied, "Very well. Let it be
so;" Our ladies, Lucy, Miss Carlisle, Adda, [and] the servants
(Lizzie and ) were present. The [bride]groom, Peck, a
painter by trade of Green Spring, appeared favorably. The bride,
pale and frightened, was neatly dressed and appeared well; name
Weler, or as I understood it Weir. Ceremony short. We all
shook hands with the parties and they drove off as they came in
a buggy, but now as husband and wife.
FREMONT, OHIO, October 13, 1883.
DEAR MISS WILLARD:--Your esteemed favor to Mrs. Hayes
is before me. In the hurry of a departure to New York she
wishes me to write you, and beg you to receive her thanks for
your kindness. It will not be in her power to attend your meet-
ing. She has more engagements on her hands than she can
properly attend to, and is seeking to get away from, rather than
to add to them.
I hope you still adhere to your old faith. In spite of the
blunders and blindness of friends, the good cause still gains.
The constant forces--education, example, religion--may seem
slow in their operation, but they will not fail. In the decision
128 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
of these great questions, courts, ballot-boxes, and legislatures are
With all good wishes, sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
MISS F. E. WILLARD,
October 27. Saturday.--Every good cause gained a victory
when the Union troops were triumphant. Our final victory was
the triumph of religion, of virtue, of knowledge. More wealth,
more comfort, better food, better shelter, and more of all these
things belonged to mankind. More education and better, more
religion and better. During those four years, whatever our
motives, whatever our lives, we were fighting on God's side.
We were doing His work. What would this country have been
if we had failed? Lord Coleridge told us what all here now
I have the works of Emerson in attractive form -- seven
volumes. I have read them all before. I now take them up again.
FREMONT, OHIO, October 29, 1883.
MY DEAR GUY:--I have, for the moment, mislaid your letter
giving the address in Europe of Miss Bettie Ballinger. To se-
cure an early transmission, I send the letters enclosed to you.
One to Mr. Lowell, our minister to England, and the other to
Mr. Morton, at Paris. They can, however, be used with any
American to whom she may wish an introduction.
A conversation on the judgeship leads me to anticipate a party
consideration of the affair.
The chance of your party to elect the next President now seems
better than at any time since the war. It is perhaps settled that
our Government is to be a party government. But this does
not imply a government by one party. An occasional change
seems natural and desirable. When one party has had six Presi-
dential terms, a change, merely for the sake of change, has some-
thing in its favor. But your leaders have a talent for blunder-
DEMOCRATS' BLUNDER TALENT 129
ing. [Being] out of power a quarter of a century has lost to
them the faculty of statesmanship under responsibility. They
will probably throw away their chance.
As ever, sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
HON. GUY M. BRYAN,
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, November 14, 1883.
MY DEAR MISS WILLARD:--I was surprised and sorry to see
in your annual address that you are not reimbursed for your
personal outlay for engraving the Huntington portrait. The
matter was never brought to my attention before. The
photograph of the painting by Rockwood is so much more satis-
factory than the engraving, that it is to be regretted that the en-
graving was accepted. But this is no reason why the expense of
getting it up should be borne by you. If you will send me the
amount, I will see what I can do. Your autograph to a note in
this matter is to be prized, and with the understanding that I
may have the very obligation to add to my collection of auto-
graphs, I shall feel disposed to strain a point. This on con-
dition that my name is not to be mentioned in this connection.
With the friendly regards of Mrs. Hayes and myself.
R. B. HAYES.
MISS F. E. WILLARD.
November 18. Sunday. -- Lucy says that when her father died,
leaving in straitened circumstances her mother and three young
children, her father left fifteen or twenty slaves. The grand-
father, who died about the same time (cholera took off six of
the family), and Dr. Webb were sending their slaves to Liberia
as fast as they could, and had fully decided to set them all free.
Some of the friends of the family advised Mother Webb to sell
the slaves. Her reply was: "Before I will sell a slave, I will
take in washing to support my family."
130 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
FREMONT, OHIO, November 20, 1883.
MY DEAR WEBB:--You know I do not explain or deny state-
ments as to incidents of my Administration. But when a misstate-
ment is corrected by an editor on his own responsibility, the case
is different. I would be glad if Mr. Cowles [editor of the Cleve-
land Leader] would insert something like this which is enclosed.
The letters I send you, if shown by you to Mr. Cowles, will en-
able him to do it. If he will do it without referring to me, I
would like it. The fact is, Senator Edmunds and his family
were our friends, and intimate at the White House.
W. C. HAYES, R. B. HAYES.
November 30. -- Our Thanksgiving was a happy one. All of
the family were at home. With Lucy, Birch, Webb and Scott
attended a union service at the Presbyterian church. Mr. Swan-
ton, of the German Reformed [church], preached an appropriate
sermon, other clergymen taking part in the services.
General Comly and wife, with their daughter, Susie, and their
sons, Guy and Smith, and Mr. and Mrs. Mather dined with us.
A happy time with the general and his interesting family. Old
war scenes the leading topic.
Private. FREMONT, OHIO, December 2, 1883.
MY DEAR MR. REID:--If you want Mr. Blaine's plan to float,
why not connect it with education? Let the whiskey tax go to
the States in aid of universal education. The capital objection to
distribution is that the States will, as heretofore, waste the money.
Confine it therefore to education. You will in this way enlist a
powerful and growing sentiment in favor of the plan.
When a friend does a conspicuously good thing I always want
to tell him that it is known and appreciated and congratulate him
upon it. Now you are doing great things all the time. Every
morning it [the New York Tribune] comes to I know not how
many people. You send out the best newspaper in the world;
BLAINE'S TAX DISTRIBUTION PLAN 131
more than that, the best newspaper that ever was in the world.
I heartily congratulate you.
WHITELAW REID, R. B. HAYES.
December 8. Saturday.--I went to Cincinnati Tuesday to
attend [a] Loyal Legion meeting. A good visit at Herron's. The
meeting of the Loyal Legion was interesting. Thursday evening
with Mrs. Herron to the ex-army and navy officers' lecture by
General Cox. He gave us an admirable narrative of the Ohio
situation the first three months of the war.
Lucy left for Chicago Tuesday. By the papers I see that
Mrs. Jewett gave her a notable reception Thursday evening. I
returned in the rain last night. Scott got on the train at Clyde.
Tonight I am alone in the house. I attended Croghan Lodge,
Number 77, I. O. O. F., with Brother I. M. Keeler. Paid my
dues to Brother Underhill for one year. Saw the record of my
initiation between thirty and forty years ago. . . . I will
spend the evening with my correspondence which is four days in
December 11. Tuesday.--The Bible Society of the county
held its meeting for the year yesterday. The old officers were re-
elected. Another canvass of the county to collect money and sup-
ply all destitute families will be had in 1884-5. Once in five years
seems to be regarded as sufficient. General Buckland, Dr. Stil-
well, and myself were added to the executive committee; or
rather with the secretary, Mr. Keeler, and the treasurer, Mr.---,
were made the committee.
SPIEGEL GROVE, December 11, 1883.
MY DEAR DAUGHTER: -- Your excellent report and the grace-
ful little note came to make me happy yesterday.
Yes, lonely is a feeble word for it. One night I was the sole
occupant for several hours of the Spiegel! But no ghosts ap-
peared; neither good nor bad spirits showed themselves.
132 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Your mother and Adda must be having enjoyment in Chicago.
They will not return before Saturday and may make their ab-
sence a round fortnight.
Do you see the wonderful sunsets of this charming weather?
Make it an appointment to meet the sun as he departs in all his
glory every night as long as he displays such brilliancy. To see
him rise is also well, but his setting must not be lost.
I am glad to hear you are practicing bookkeeping. To keep
accurate accounts promotes economy and you know what econ-
omy is the road to -- if not to heaven, at least to peace of mind.
Two weeks to your coming. I wish it was half a day or less.
"Delighted to see you"? Why, "of course" --"tourse," as you
used to say.
The scholarship of the report was altogether satisfactory.
"Deportment 83"--that is fair. But I want to see it go up.
Can't you make it one hundred! Try it.
Affectionately, your loving father,
MISS FANNY HAYES,
SPIEGEL, December 11, 1883.
MY DARLING: -- You are enjoying the Chicago visit; therefore
make the most of it. The movement of the household is satisfac-
tory. Hattie is perfect.
Scott pleased Birch at the theatre. [John McCullough as
Brutus.] He was cool and observant. Knowing the play, he
was able to remark on omissions, changes, and what was coming
next, to the surprise of those near him, and to the delight of his
admiring older brother.
I have an excellent letter and an excellent report from Fanny.
Her most enthusiastic utterance was, "Only two weeks to Christ-
mas!" . . .
With all regards to Adda and the friends at 412.
MRS. HAYES AT CHICAGO 133
SPIEGEL, December 13, 1883. Thursday A. M.
MY DARLING: -- The lovely Indian summer still continues. All
well. . . . I wrote in reply to the editor of the temperance
organ at Chicago, Miss Willard, that you were there, but that
she must not urge more duties on you, and explained our position
and "work." If she calls you need promise nothing but smother
her with politeness.
With all good words and thoughts for all -- Adda included.
FREMONT, OHIO, December 19, 1883.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--Your friendly blows were put in the
right place. The new Democratic organ at Cincinnati got crooked
notions about me, I fear from Hoadly. It has been full of ma-
licious slings. Your hearty talk pleases me not a little.
Thanks for your paper [the Toledo Commercial]. Its good-
natured, hopeful tone is capital. Good for Toledo, good for you,
good, every way! It will be a builder-up. I must not bore you
with my gratitude. You know how it is.
With all good wishes for you and yours.
R. B. HAYES.
P. S.--There is an error of amount in the church business
not ten but five thousand dollars is my obligation. To be exact,
I agree to pay one-quarter the cost of the church. It will be
eighteen to twenty thousand dollars. Not important.--H.
GENERAL J. M. COMLY,
December 21.--In my next [speech] I will quote from the
letters of Emerson to Carlyle. The man having the best head and
the best heart of any scholar of our day said in 1864, "that view-
ing all the nationalities of the world, the battle for humanity is
134 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
at this hour in America." "I shall always," said he, "respect
war hereafter. The cost of life, the dreary havoc of comfort
and time are overpaid by the vistas it opens of Eternity."
FREMONT, OHIO, December 22, 1883.
MY DEAR MR. RHEEM: -- I was glad to get your friendly letter.
It recalled old times and old friends. It brought back freshly
the scenes of childhood. The farm up the river; the tannery
across the street; Delaware Run; the mill-pond where Lorenzo
was drowned; the sulphur spring; "Little's World"; the "Irish
Section," and the big hill. I could see again, as I read, Mother
and Uncle, Fanny and Mrs. Wasson, Thomas and Means Was-
son, the Vinings, the Agards, the Worlines, the Van Bremers.
Then there were some victims of drink, as old John Wilson, Sol.
Smith, Pettigrew, and others. Of course I do not forget the
prominent citizens, Judge Williams, Mr. Little, Powers, Mauser,
Dr. Hills, Rev. Henry Vandeman, Dunlap, Dr. Lamb, and the
rest. Of boys of my own age, I remember Lewis Brush, Edwin
Cowles, Charlie Mauser, Manley Covell, Sidney Moore, Cyrus
Platt, and many besides.
I am glad you are well. It is my good fortune to have fine
health. Our children will all spend the holidays with us. The
two younger, Fanny and Scott, have come home from school.
The three grown boys have been well started in life and promise
to be good men.
As to my Administration, I am content to leave its merits to
the judgment of candid men. It found the country in distress
and perplexed with difficult and dangerous questions. It left the
country prosperous and happy, and with the money question,
the Southern question, the Indian question, the civil service ques-
tion, the Chinese question, and others either settled or in the
process of settlement finally and happily.
It found its party weak, divided, and defeated in Congress.
It left its party united, strong, and triumphant in Congress and
before the people.
PAYNE FOR SENATE BAD POLITICS 135
But this is aside from the holidays. I speak of it because you
allude to politics and my Administration.
All good wishes, I am glad to send to you, my old friend.
SAMUEL RHEEM, R. B. HAYES.
December 23. Sunday.--A fine evening with "all the boys"
and Miss Sherman and Miss Miller. Finished the Emerson-
Carlyle correspondence. Found the exact facts, in various vol-
umes, of the landing of the Pilgrims. An exploring party of ten
or so in a shallop left the Mayflower and on the 11th [of] De-
cember, O. S., 1620, landed at Plymouth. Pleased with the
"situation," they returned to the Mayflower, and on the 16th
O. S. many from the ship also landed--men and women. The
Mayflower was not finally left until after they had built "their
first house," December 25.
December 25. -- Lucy sent books to twelve boys, her Sunday-
school class, such as "School Days at Rugby," "Swiss Family
Robinson," and the like; and to one a knife. The servants were
called in and Fanny, Adda, and the boys and old folks, all of
whom had presents.
December 30.--This is the anniversary of our wedding.
Thirty-one years of happy married life! Darling Lucy. She is
now in excellent health.
January 1, 1884. -- Lucy engaged at the new church, afternoon
and evening until 8 P. M., making the Sunday[-school] children
happy with a Christmas tree donated by the Presbyterians. It
was gay with candles, and stockings filled with candy, and fes-
tooned with strings of popcorn and cranberries. All a simple
affair, but as happiness-giving as the more expensive affairs of
the great cities.
January 9. -- Payne is nominated -- the nomination signifying
an election -- by the Democratic caucus for Senator in place of
Pendleton. Mr. Payne is seventy-three years old; able, conserva-
136 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
tive, well-meaning. Taken altogether, a Senator for Ohio to be
content with. Politically it was a mistake. Pendleton was beaten
solely because he was for civil service reform. One delegation
from Dayton lobbying against him wore on their badges the
motto, "To the Victors Belong the Spoils."
I. To defeat Pendleton for this reason disgusts the Inde-
pendents--a body that embraces intelligence, wealth, and in-
creasing numbers. None of them will feel friendly to the Demo-
cratic party until this slap in the face is forgotten.
2. The workingmen's party is on the threshold, under Butler
and others demagogues, of organizing independently as a new
third party. It cannot support a party which elects one so identi-
fied with great corporations as Mr. Payne is. To them he is
the great monopolist of the State. The votes of the "working-
men" largely belong to the Democratic party. Their loss will
destroy the power of the Democracy.
Private and confidential.
FREMONT, OHIO, January 10, 1884.
MY DEAR MAJOR:--I send you enclosed a hasty and brief
sketch [of the battle of Cedar Creek] by General Comly. He
is editor of a daily paper at Toledo, a gentleman of character
I prefer not to add to his sketch. In the fight to save Sheri-
dan's headquarters, my horse was killed under me and I was
painfully wounded, but not compelled to leave the field. My pro-
motion to brigadier-general was made "to date from October
19, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services in the battles of
Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek." You would, I
am sure, not disparage, without the gravest reasons, an officer
of such solid merits as General George Crook. He was in the
immediate command of the Army of West Virginia during the
whole of the battle of Cedar Creek.
With best wishes, sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
P. S.--During the present winter I have been forced to use
a crutch a short time from the effects of the injury received at
CAUSES OF CEDAR CREEK DISASTER 137
Cedar Creek -- a combination of rheumatism and the old wound.
P. P. S.--The First Division of Crook's Command at Cedar
Creek was commanded by Colonel Thoburn, of Wheeling, West
Virginia. He was killed in the action near Middletown. He
was a conscientious, noble gentleman, of unflinching courage,
and in all respects able, and worthy to command the division
under him. If you knew all the facts you would, I am confident,
attach no blame to him. I have attributed the disaster of the
morning at Cedar Creek to
1. The withdrawal of the cavalry outpost from the right
bank of the Shenandoah, on the left of our army, thus enabling
Early to reach and pass the river on our left and rear unob-
2. To leaving our left front with a line of works far too long
for the small force charged with its defence. In broad daylight
with ample notice, Colonel Thoburn's division, if not reinforced,
would probably have been overwhelmed by the superior num-
bers of the masses that attacked it.
I do not speak of the cause for these errors. General Comly
has no doubt hit the nail on the head in explaining the blame,
which has, in some quarters, attached to Crook's command. The
command was called sometimes "the Eighth Corps" and some-
times "The Army of West Virginia." In fact on that morning
it had hardly the strength of a division and was divided, part
being in front, and part a mile to the rear "in reserve."--H.
P. S. -- On reading again General Comly's letter, I notice some
slight errors in his account of my movements at the close of the
day, but they are not material to the main purpose of his letter.
MAJOR JOHN M. GOULD,
January 11, 1884. Friday. -- Mrs. Herron left us this morn-
ing. A delightful visit with her. She is one of the lovely wo-
men -- beautiful still, cultured, admirable mind and temper; re-
minds me constantly of my dear sister Fanny. I took her to the
138 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
station in the one-horse sleigh and sent Rutherford with her (her
health being still uncertain) to Cleveland.
FREMONT, OHIO, January 14, 1884.
DEAR SIR:--I have your letter showing that Eliza Jane [for-
mer servant, colored] is in poor health, and needs aid. I send you
five dollars to be expended in making her comfortable. If you
get it safely, and tell me how you spend it for her, I will send
again immediately the like amount.
R. B. HAYES.
FREMONT, OHIO, January 18, 1884.
MY DEAR SIR: -- Camp (J. A.) has notice that his services as
special agent will not be required after February 1. I believe,
as he states, that he is a valuable officer. He wishes to remain
until he can resign -- would like the time extended a few months.
I do not know as [that] you can say or do anything, but venture
to name it.
You, of course, know that you are constantly spoken of for
President. The general is also a favorite. I am glad you are both
entirely passive. But it may be satisfactory to you to be assured
that the best citizens in Ohio uniformly speak with great favor
of your candidacy. I do not ask you to say a word in reply to
this. -- We are all in usual health.
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN.
Private and confidential.
FREMONT, OHIO, January 23, 1884.
MY DEAR GENERAL: -- I rarely notice in any way, and never
publicly, attacks or reflections on my official action when I was
President. But I venture to write you a word on what you are
reported to have said in your speech for the Fitz-John Porter
Relief Bill, viz.:--
CLEMENCY TO OFFICERS DEFENDED 139
"To the same cause must be attributed the course of one of our
late Chief Magistrates, in habitually reversing the findings of
these courts. Officers sentenced to dismissal for the most dis-
graceful offences were in many instances restored to the army,
greatly to the demoralization of the service."
All court-martial cases coming before the Executive were
carefully examined by the Secretary of War, and the decision
reached was, I think, in all cases approved by him. Judge
McCrary was a sound, painstaking, and upright lawyer. The
cases criticized were for the most part decided when he was
Secretary of War. Doubtless, mistakes were made, but the mis-
takes were not "habitual" but exceptional, and were, I hope, in
all cases on the side of mercy and never on the side of severity.
They were made in a time of peace. Usually in favor of young
officers, misled by following the example, in many cases, of their
superiors. You say that these decisions caused demoralization
in the army. Please investigate and see if the officers retained in
the service are not still in the service, for the most part, and
without official complaint on account of present character or con-
My relations with you lead me to think that you would not re-
flect on me from personal hostility or on merely partisan grounds.
My impression has been that I might confidently look to you for
fairness and candor. I do not see how the case of General Porter
can be strengthened by an attack on me.
I mark this confidential that you may yourself be led to investi-
gate more carefully the matter referred to, and modify your own
views, not with any wish for any public attention to it.
With great respect. Sincerely,
GENERAL HENRY W. SLOCUM, R. B. HAYES.
Washington, D. C.
SPIEGEL GROVE, January 29, 1884.
MY DARLING:--Your letter to your mother came today. It
does indeed seem a great while since you left us all disconsolate.
We long for you -- for your music -- for your laugh -- for your-
140 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Of course your good friends are always welcome -- Effie Pope
or any other.
When you hear a good lecture I would like to have you give
me a brief abstract of it. To do this fastens it in your memory,
and enables you to make it part of your own mental equipment.
With oceans of love, yours affectionately,
MISS FANNY HAYES.
FREMONT, OHIO, January 30, 1884.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--You have been invited to attend the
banquet of the Ohio Commandery of the Loyal Legion in Cincin-
nati next week. I sincerely hope you will attend.
Our relations during the earlier years of my residence in Wash-
ington were exceedingly agreeable to me, and I shall be glad to
renew them--glad to meet you and greet as I should have done
during 1877 and 1878.
In conclusion let me assure you that you will be warmly wel-
comed in Cincinnati by very many of your former army asso-
ciates and by
R. B. HAYES.
FREMONT, OHIO, January 31, 1884.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--I notice that you are to be elected a
companion of the Loyal Legion next Wednesday evening. Our
yearly banquet is that evening. It occurred to me that you might
hesitate to attend--to go to a meeting--until after you are
notified of your election. I write to urge you to have no such
feeling. You will of course be elected. It is hoped and expected
by all concerned that you will come. The election and "invest-
[it]ure" will be just before the banquet. The request that those
in your situation shall attend has been published, but fearing you
may not have seen it, I write you.
"Same as before." Sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
HOME RULE IN TEMPERANCE 141
P. S. -- You know, I hope, that the [enclosed] scrap is not sent
to procure a "flourish." I merely want you to know the fact.
If referred to at all ever, let it not go beyond a line in an obscure
corner stating simply: "General R. B. Hayes has given to the
free public library in Fremont $1,000." This or nothing
GENERAL J. M. COMLY,
February 2. -- In reply to a letter, asking Mrs. Hayes to con-
tradict a lecturer who said "the crusade" was a failure and who
opposed prohibition, I wrote as follows:--
FREMONT, OHIO, February 2, 1884.
MY DEAR SIR: -- Your esteemed favor, addressed to Mrs.
Hayes, is before me.
You will, I trust, on reflection, excuse Mrs. Hayes from tak-
ing part in any controversy between professed friends of tem-
perance. Believing earnestly in discussion, education, and ex-
ample, as forces whose efficiency nobody will question, she does
not wish to criticize those who adopt other lines of work in be-
half of the good cause.
R. B. HAYES.
REV. ALONZO SANDERSON,
In short, "to rule the situation," you must get the people with
you--the very people--those who rule at the place where the
thing is to be done. Not an outside people. Home rulers are in
this matter the only rulers.
February 6. Wednesday.--At Burnet House [Cincinnati]
a happy day with military friends, old and new. Barnett, Buck-
land, Comly, Leggett, Enochs, Force, and so forth, and so forth.
Banquet, one hundred and sixteen plates; speeches, short and
good; singing, glorious. The most gentlemanly affair I recall.
Barnett, Leggett, and I turned down our glasses.
142 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
February 7. Thursday. -- With Birch left the hotel and went
to Herron's. We crossed the bridge near Little Miami Depot
to Newport. Water 61 feet 4 inches -- the highest I ever saw it.
P. M. Birch and I went up to Highland House on the inclined
plane, Oak Street route. Saw the flood from that point. Not
so impressive as I expected.
I called on the family of my old friend of schoolboy days,
George W. Jones. He died a week ago today at 7 P. M. of
pneumonia after a short illness. Had always been strong and
healthy -- a model of manly beauty. Not often together of late
years, we were yet friends of closest intimacy since 1840. Nannie
and Lizzie both sad and mourning--full of sweetness. I
should have gone to the funeral if they had notified me.
February 8. Friday. -- Left Cincinnati with Birch on Bee
Line. Had to take cars on Eighth Street, in the middle of Mill
Creek Valley, now a lake--water 61:8.
February 11. Monday. -- [Clark] Waggoner called and spent
an hour. Nothing new except a few facts, additional to those
I was aware of, showing in a still stronger light the shameful
character of his dismissal from the public service.
February 19.--Bright and springlike. Lovely day to begin
the G. A. R. fair in which Lucy is taking a large interest. The
rain and wind in the afternoon made a dismal business of it.
But in spite of all, the opening was very successful. The sing-
ing and other exercises were good, the supper superb, and the
display of the wares, booths, and general ornamentation of the
G. A. R. Hall creditable. The two halls, the Birchard and the
new hall in the Hayes block, were used in common for the Fair.
Lucy was radiant and remained to the end, 11 P. M.
Wednesday, February 20. -- I have a letter from Herron ac-
knowledging receipt of one hundred dollars sent to the relief of
the sufferers by the flood on the 13th.
The broom drill of the young ladies, under their efficient drill-
master, Will Haynes, was superb. The turnout of the people
was large; both halls well filled. Entrance ten cents. All de-
POLITICAL OUTLOOK, MARCH, 1884 143
scriptions of people present. Rud appeared in "Mary Jane," a
pantomime; greeted with uproarious applause and laughter.
February 23. Saturday. -- The G. A. R. took the day; dined
in the hall. After dinner at 3 P. M. went to Opera House; the
broom drill to a good audience. I thanked the Broom Brigade
and their "gallant commandant" in the name of the post. The
evening was a "jam," indeed.
The singing was good, the tableaux beautiful, the auction of
goods successful, but the money was made and the excitement
centred in the contest for the cane. A five-dollar affair which
was worked up to over six hundred dollars. The five days'
fair was a remarkable five days' festival.
[Cleveland], February 27. -- Met with the trustees of the Adel-
bert College of Western Reserve University. Routine business
except the application of the medical college to be rid of the
Adelbert name in connection with that department. The endow-
ment of Mr. Stone was in no way for the [use] of the medical
school. Committee appointed to deal with the subject, viz.,
Hayes, President Cutler, Handy, Boardman, and Perkins.
March 5. Wednesday. -- Attended the funeral of Julia Mil-
ler, daughter of the cashier of the national [bank]. She died of
scarlet fever (age, eighteen), at school in Newton, Massachu-
setts; a lovely and beautiful girl; died suddenly, after all danger
was thought to be past.
FREMONT, OHIO, March 14, 1884.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--I have your letter of the (early this
month). I am somewhat out of the current of information on
political events. It looks to me as if the Republicans must carry
both Ohio and New York, or lose. Sherman, Edmunds, Lincoln,
either, perhaps, can unite Stalwarts, Half-breeds, and Independ-
ent Republicans. All these elements are needed and with sub-
stantial unanimity. The point against the Democrats is, they will
disturb the business of the country by tinkering with the cur-
rency, the tariff, and the settlements of the war.
144 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
With either Payne or McDonald, their candidate will be per-
sonally fit for the place. But New York City Democracy always
has, and still does determine the policies of the Democratic
party. How unfit and dangerous this leadership is, the history
of the last twenty-five years sufficiently shows.
This in a general way is my notion of the situation.
R. B. HAYES.
March 15. -- Today Lucy and Adda go to Pickaway and Ross
Counties to attend the funeral of John Boggs, uncle by marriage
of Lucy and Adda. He was about seventy-six years of age. A
man of business ability, wealthy; with wit and humor beyond,
far beyond, the average. Good company; a staunch Democrat;
voted once for me! I shall miss him greatly on my visits to
March 16. Sunday. -- A lonely house without Lucy and Adda.
Evening, Birch read aloud seventeen cantos of Dante.
[Cleveland], March 20. Thursday. -- Came here yesterday.
Was met at station by Mr. Boardman who took me to his pleas-
ant home on Euclid Avenue. This morning with President
Cutler, Mr. Perkins, Dr. Bushnell, Mr. Boardman, trying to ar-
range a new organization for Western Reserve University which
would remove the objections of the medical department to the
present title. I saw Mr. John Hay [son-in-law of Amasa J.
Stone]. He talked sensibly and in a good spirit. He recog-
nized the difficulty of the name; was ready as one of the heirs
of Mr. Stone to do what was reasonable; would favor an
organization of the medical department with the name "The
Medical College of Western Reserve University."
P. M. met the above again with the addition of Mr. Handy
and Dr. Webber. Agreed that I should prepare alternative char-
ters--one simply Western Reserve University, and the other,
The Medical College of Western Reserve University, and submit
to Colonel Hay when he was in better health--say, next week.
In my interview with Colonel Hay I said: "I must still think he
THE CINCINNATI RIOT 145
wrote a part of 'The Bread Winners'"; that it was very good,
that he had a hand in it, etc., etc. He began to speak (probably
in denial), I stopped him and changed the subject. I still think
I was right. [So the event proved.]
March 26. Wednesday.--Attended teachers' institute. Pro-
fessor Marsh was lecturing on pronunciation and the mode of
teaching it. Did so very entertainingly. I spoke to the intelligent
young people a few words on industrial education.
March 31. Monday. -- The riot in Cincinnati -- burning of
the court-house! A bad bad! How to fight mobs in cities? A
good police. A good military organization. Arm the police with
revolvers and clubs. The military should have, in addition to
military long-range rifles, short-range fowling-pieces. No danger
to distant citizens. A grist of buck or small shot to clear the
April 4, 1884. -- Went to Cincinnati April 1; attended a pleas-
ant meeting of the Loyal Legion, [April] 2. The recitations by
Murdock were very entertaining. Dined with General Force.
Present, Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Burnett and David Horton.
[April] 3, Thursday, in Cleveland to organize The New Western
Reserve University. All looks well. Home, today.
April 9. [Wednesday.--Judge Drake has delivered an opinion
of the Court of Claims that my action in the case of Benjamin P.
Runkle was illegal and void. My opinion was clear that Runkle
on the merits was entitled to a reversal of the sentence of the
court martial against him. On the legal points, the Secretary of
War, Judge McCrary, sustained the action taken. If there was
error on technical or legal points, it was on the side of humanity,
equity, and substantial justice.
April 10. Thursday. -- Fanny came home this evening at
seven from her school at Cleveland to spend ten days with us.
Happy days for us. Her scholarship is excellent by the reports.
She is sweet, tender, and sensible.
April 14. Monday.--With Lucy and Fanny to Toledo. The
Green Spring Academy and its union [with] Adelbert College
146 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
my chief business. Met Judge J. W. Cummings and Rev. Dr.
McGaw on the subject.
The Loyal Legion [men of Toledo] called and tendered me
a dinner [on] the 30th. General Fuller, General Comly, Cap-
tain Austin, Major Bliven, committee.
April 15. Tuesday.--On 8 o'clock train to Cleveland. Met
the gentlemen of the Western Reserve University at Mr. Joseph
Perkins' office and organized the new university. Present, W.
J. Boardman, Dr. Webber, President Cutler, T. P. Handy, Judge
Williamson, Joseph Perkins. I was made chairman; Judge Wil-
liamson, secretary. Regulations adopted. It was announced by
Dr. Webber that a gentleman was ready to advance the funds
for a fine building and the endowment of a medical department.
April 19. -- The elections of delegates to the Chicago Repub-
lican convention show Blaine to be the favorite candidate. Pos-
sibly not enough so to nominate him. He is clearly in advance
largely of any other leader, but may not get more delegates than
all others combined. He fails in two points as a candidate. He
lacks the confidence of thoughtful, high-minded, and patriotic
people. They doubt his personal integrity; they think he is a
demagogue. Besides, his record as a partisan places him in oppo-
sition to large elements of the party. The Stalwart element, the
Grant men of 1880, do not like him, and the independent men
oppose him. He is therefore not the most available man and not
the best man named for the office. Either Edmunds, Lincoln,
or Sherman would be a better President and a better candidate.
He does not belong to the class of leaders of whom Hamilton,
Jefferson, Clay, Calhoun, Seward, Lincoln, and Webster are types.
He is of the Butler and Douglas type--more like Douglas in
character and position than any other of the great leaders of the
past. Clay would rather be right than be President. Blaine
would gladly be wrong to be President. I still hope Edmunds
may be the nominee, or Lincoln, or Sherman.
April 24, 1884. Thursday. -- Visited McPherson lodge I. O.
O. F. and saw the "team work." The sculptors are right about
the awkwardness of a statue in modern dress--pantaloons and
frock coat. Men in the picturesque costumes of knights and
WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY 147
oriental personages, who are common-looking in their usual
dress, become graceful and dignified figures.
April 27. Sunday.--Attended meeting yesterday of board
of trustees of the Western Reserve University at Cleveland. We
elected officers. President, Cutler; secretary, Bushnell; treasurer,
Bushnell; Executive committee--Cutler, Andrews, Williamson,
Wood, and ---.
Mr. Wood (John L.) gives a quarter of a million of dollars
to found the medical department. This is the first fruit of the
organization of the Western Reserve University.
President Cutler, Rev. Dr. Bushnell, and myself talked over the
affairs of the Green Spring Academy. It was agreed that some-
thing like this [plan giving the college control of the academy]
should be reported, and it is the opinion of the committee that
it will be sanctioned by the board of trustees of the Adelbert
College: . . .
1. Green Spring Academy to be adopted by the college as
one of its preparatory schools.
2. The college to control and carry it on by means of the
right to name a majority of its board of trustees.
3. The graduation in the classical course of the academy to
admit without examination to the college.
4. The college to assist the academy as follows, viz., by a
loan without interest of the sum of seventy-five hundred dollars,
to be repaid by the roll of scholarships which shall be good either
at the college or the academy at the option of the holders; a
permanent scholarship to be five hundred dollars; a scholarship
for our college or academical course, one hundred dollars.
5. The form of subscription for scholarships to be substan-
tially the following:--"We, the subscribers, promise to pay the
sum set opposite our respective names to the trustees of the
Green Spring Academy for the benefit of said academy.
"Each subscription of five hundred dollars shall entitle the
donor to a permanent scholarship in Green Spring Academy or
if preferred in Adelbert College of Western Reserve University,
and each subscription of one hundred dollars shall entitle the
donor to a scholarship for four years either in the academy or
the College at the option of the subscriber.
148 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
"These subscriptions to be payable within sixty days after the
aggregate amount of the same reaches the sum of six thousand
6. The amounts collected on said subscription to be paid to
the college by the academy for the sum loaned as provided in
April 29. Tuesday. -- Decoration Day I am to follow the
regular orator, Dr. Kemper, at Springfield. My topic will again
be "National Aid to Education." After discussing this, I will
turn to the points: But our system of education is not perfect. It
fails to fit young men and women for the practical duties of
life. It lacks training in the skill and habits of manual labor.
True: and I would reform the present system in this particu-
lar. What the Slater Board is doing.
April 30. Wednesday. -- We go to Toledo to attend a lunch
given to Mrs. Hayes and myself by the Companions of the Loyal
Legion in Toledo.
May 1, 1884. -- We had a happy meeting with the Companions
and their wives last evening. Present: General and Mrs. Fuller,
General and Mrs. Comly, General and Mrs. Young, Captain and
Mrs. Richard Waite, Major and Mrs. Norman Waite, Captain
and Mrs. Osborn, Chaplain and Mrs. Bacon, Colonel and Mrs.
Bell, Mrs. Judge Austin, Mrs. Henry Waite, Major and Mrs.
Bliven, Captain Mattox, Captain Bigelow, Birchard Hayes and
Adda, myself and wife. No toasts, no speeches, no nonsense --
a quiet social time. After 11 P. M. we attended the reception
at William Baker's--also a brilliant affair.
May 7. Wednesday. -- At Cincinnati; evening Loyal Legion.
Reelected commander on recommendation of both committees.
Thursday, May 8. -- To Berea with General Leggett and Major
Rix; thence home. Dispatches of death of Mr. Slater at Nor-
wich, Connecticut. Left home at 10:30 P. M. to Toledo. Took
train for New York, after a three-hour nap at Toledo.
May 10. Saturday. -- At 8 A. M., train to New Haven, New
London, and Norwich. Met Daniel Chadwick on train near his
DEATH OF JOHN F. SLATER 149
town, Lyme; Mr. Jesup at New London. At Norwich were met
by Mr. C. C. Johnson with a carriage; thence to the home of our
deceased friend, the wise giver, Mr. Slater. The funeral well
attended. Good men praise him. His employes mourn. The
preacher, Mr. Howe, delivered a capital sermon.
May 11. Sunday. -- The guest of Moses Pierce [at Norwich].
His family, a widowed daughter and her daughter Kitty, age
sixteen, and an unmarried daughter. Mr. Pierce, an intelligent,
pious man; successful manufacturer, friend of Elihu Burritt;
an old-line abolitionist.
May 12. Monday. -- Rode with Mr. Pierce around Norwich,
looking at the fine old trees and the attractive town. Met Mr.
D. A. Wells -- earnestly for free trade of course, and full of
interesting and zealous talk.
Cleveland, May 14, 1884. Wednesday. -- Called on C. C.
Baldwin. Joined Western Reserve Historical Society. After-
noon at rooms of Mr. Ryder looking at the model and designs
for Garfield monument. I have two ideas: A conspicuous, lofty
tower, and, for the nearer view, a striking statute, heroic size,
of General Garfield. Both seem to me requisite.
May 17. Saturday.--If the boss system is to go down, as
now seems probable, I can say I struck the first and most diffi-
cult blows. It is based on Congressional patronage and Sena-
torial prerogative, or courtesy. This was fully entrenched at
Washington when I was inaugurated in 1877. The first step in
a reform of the civil service was to break it down. As long as
the lawmaking power held the power of appointment, that is,
"the patronage," there could be no legislation in behalf of reform.
Any reform was at the expense of the power of the Senator and
The first and principal step was the appointment of members
of the Cabinet. This belonged, according to the prevailing sys-
tem, to the leaders of the party in the Senate. A Cabinet of in-
dependent men was organized. The Cabinet, it was claimed by
the champions of the boss system, should be formed not un-
friendly to the system. The announcement of the names of Mr.
150 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Evarts and Mr. Schurz, both independent men, both opposed
by the bosses, opened the war. Appointments were soon made
in all directions, not dictated by the leaders. From that moment
the Stalwart leaders and the newspapers who followed them, and
their rank and file, have assailed my conduct, character, and
motives with the utmost bitterness. But let the heathen rage!
The good work has made great advances. The principal steps
1. The appointment of the Cabinet in 1877 and the general
course of the Hayes appointments without heeding the dictation
of Senators and Representatives. 2. The defeat of Conkling in
the custom house conflict, which made a business institution of
the New York custom house. 3. The defeat of Conkling and
Platt, their dismissal from public life in 1881. 4. The defeat
of the bosses at Chicago in 1880.
I directed Mr. Jackman to plant trees around the street fronts
of our new Methodist church -- four elms on east front and three
maples on south front. The work seems to be well done.
May 18. I must this week prepare my remarks for Decora-
tion Day at Springfield. I am to follow Dr. Kemper, of Cin-
cinnati, who will make a scholarly and attractive address. Mine
will be more offhand and practical. Education needed to secure
the fruits of the Union victory -- a practical, industrial system
of education especially in the South.
May 19, Monday. -- Lucy and Adda start this morning for
Philadelphia to attend the Woman's Home Missionary Society
meeting at Philadelphia, where the General Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church is now in session. A lonely home
for a few days.
FREMONT, OHIO, May 24, 1884.
MY DEAR S--:--It is good for heart and brain to see your
familiar handwriting again. The article you send is every way
excellent. That is work you are fond of. It is perhaps not
your specialty. Practical statesmanship--the higher walks of
politics--is probably your forte, but when there is nothing to
ACHIEVEMENTS OF ADMINISTRATION 151
do in that field, history is your place -- biographical history par-
ticularly. I wish you were not so overworked.
The life of Clay is in other hands. Is Lincoln adequately done?
It seems to me there is a vacant place.
With all good wishes ALWAYS. Sincerely,
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH.
May 26.--Mr. Ward of the Independent wants to write an
editorial on the rather sneering tone of Beecher's speech at the
Arthur meeting. He (Beecher) spoke of my Administration as
providing the poultice the country needed, and then going to
sleep; that "Hayes sleeps yet."* Not at all important. But the
settlement of the Southern question was not a sleepy affair. The
resumption of specie payments and the veto of the bill to cripple
the banks is not forgotten by business men. The six vetoes of the
laws to protect the rights at elections in the South of colored peo-
ple, the Chinese veto, and the Mexican troubles settled, Indian
outrages redressed and justice done and a policy adopted of which
education, the ownership of homes, and ultimate citizenship are
leading features. The corner-stone of a reform of the civil ser-
vice was laid by the overthrow of the Senatorial and Congres-
sional patronage [and] the rule of the bosses, and the putting the
New York custom house on a business basis, make a record of
beneficial and wise activity for the Hayes Administration which
will not suffer by comparison with that of any Administration in
time of peace during the present century. Mr. Beecher is a Stal-
wart. His favorite, Mr. Arthur, is a Stalwart except when driven
into reform positions by a public sentiment which he dare not
resist. Mr. Beecher knows that he [Arthur] stood in the way
of every reform; that he shared with Conkling the unenviable
notoriety of wielding "the machine" in New York politics, until
he was overwhelmed by the Waterloo of 1882.
* Edward Bok ("Americanization," p. 87) says Mr. Beecher deeply
regretted his words, and the same night wrote Mr. Hayes a long letter
of apology. "It was a superbly fine letter. And the reply was no less
fine." -- No such letter of apology among Hayes papers.
152 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
May 28. Wednesday. -- Lucy returned in excellent health and
spirits after a fine trip and visit to Philadelphia and Cleveland.
McKinley was unseated yesterday. But the vote in his favor
given by six Democrats -- so many of them leaders (Dorsheimer,
Hurd, Blackburn, Mills, Robinson)--and [by] the crank, White
(Republican), against him is a vote of admiration and a certifi-
cate of character.
June 8. Sunday. -- Returned last evening after an absence
since Tuesday to Cincinnati Loyal Legion and to Cleveland. The
event of the week is the nomination of Blaine at Chicago. Mr.
Blaine is not an admirable person. He is a scheming demagogue,
selfish and reckless. But he is a man of ability and will, if
elected, be a better President than he has been [a] politician.
He will, I think, try to have the support of the best people and
to make a creditable record. I will therefore support him in
preference to the Democratic candidate. He was fairly nomi-
nated. The Republican masses were for him. There is no sus-
picion of machine influence as the means of his nomination.
FREMONT, OHIO, June 11, 1884.
MY DEAR GENERAL: -- I do not recall giving the order to occupy
the church [at Raleigh, Virginia]. Perhaps a statement merely
that it was occupied as a military necessity would do. I am not,
however, in the least solicitous about it.
You have steered through the narrows of the last few weeks
so skilfully that you deserve the good luck there is in your pres-
ent position. I think Ohio will come up to the support of the
ticket handsomely. Those who persist in dissenting are so wise
and so good that it makes a streak of folly and wickedness seem
refreshing. There! How is that for a "Sunday-school politi-
R. B. HAYES,
GENERAL J. M. COMLY,
NOMINATION OF BLAINE 153
SPIEGEL, June 12, 1884.
MY DEAR S--:--Thanks for your excellent letter of the
9th. No doubt you see the situation as it is. It is not encourag-
ing. Even Tilden might possibly have gone through. I see no
chance in New York. That means the success of the Democrats.
You cannot afford to lose your treasures. No one can expect
you to do it. Why not send word that you are preparing a book
in which you will use all of your collection, which is not already
found in books, about Clay and his times; but that if there is
any point on which light is wanted, you will cheerfully give
what you have on the point named. You are not to write books,
or hunt up materials for others. It is going far enough if you aid
them on points they are investigating. Schurz is a fair man and
will see this as we do. Try it.
Try to drop in on me. I am to be home all summer.--Our
regards to Mrs. Smith and yours.
R. B. HAYES,
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH.
FREMONT, OHIO, June 13, 1884.
MY DEAR GENERAL: -- I heartily congratulate you on your tri-
umphant nomination. Its unanimity--the whole manner of it
--is very gratifying. While I preferred other nominations at
Chicago, and regard the result as a blunder and misfortune, I can-
not think of the election of a Democrat as anything but a serious
calamity. That result can now only be avoided by a skill in go-
ing amiss by the Democrats which even they will, I fear, not ex-
hibit. We ought to save Ohio. Can we?
R. B. HAYES.
GENERAL C. H. GROSVENOR.
June 14. Saturday.--As to temperance parties. All resorts
to political parties and methods are appeals to the majority. Suc-
cess, if it comes, must be by reason of popularity. That is the
154 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
best that can be said of the movement. Now, when a reform is
so popular as that the true reformer has left it,-he has taken up
something else, has gone forward,--the reform will take care
June 15. Sunday -- President Merrick of Delaware our guest.
President Merrick at Wilbraham Academy with Abel Stevens
formed perhaps the first Total Abstinence Society--in 1830
FREMONT, OHIO, June 24, 1884.
MY DEAR SIR:--Your favor of the 21st is before me. The
party referred to has been a friend from my youth--of more
than forty years' standing. He is a capable business man of great
force and will [be] very likely to succeed in anything he under-
takes. Some years ago he received a severe injury in his head.
He has seemed not so steady and reliable since. I would not ad-
vise a young man of the character of your friend to form the con-
nection proposed. I dislike to say this, and must rely on your
prudence and fidelity to so deal that I will not lose an old friend.
R. B. HAYES.
E. MARINER, ESQUIRE.
June 27. -- At Cleveland decided in favor of George Keller's
design for the Garfield Monument. A tower and a portrait statue
The study of tools as well as of books should have a place in
the public schools. Tools, machinery, and the implements of the
farm should be made familiar to every boy, and suitable indus-
trial education should be furnished for every girl.
FREMONT, OHIO, June 29, 1884.
MY DEAR SIR: -- I have your note of the 26th instant. There is
no portrait of me in the White House. If one is placed there it
should be either a full length or two-thirds length. I like the
PUBLIC OPINION AND TEMPERANCE 155
size of Mr. Van Buren's portrait. When I went to the White
House eight portraits of the Presidents were lacking. I managed
to get them all during my term. I prefer the committee should
select the artist. I like Mr. Huntington of New York, the artist
who painted the portrait of Mrs. Hayes. Whatever you decide
will be agreeable to me. Sincerely,
R. B. HAYES,
P. S.--A bust portrait may be the best size. If so in your
judgment, let it be so.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN,
July 9. Wednesday.--Father Bowles, of the Irish Catholic
Church, has a temperance gathering of Irish Catholics today at
the fair ground.
All agree, saloon men even will admit, that excessive drinking
--intemperance, drunkenness--is evil, and evil only; is a vice
and the gateway to poverty, disgrace, and crime. But what of
moderate drinking--of the social, festive, convivial, fashionable
use of the intoxicating glass? It is the road, the only road to
drunkenness. It is useless, wasteful, dangerous. Let it be con-
demned by public opinion, by fashion, by the law. Let it be made
unfashionable, disgraceful, unlawful.
I would not, if I could, direct torrents of ridicule or indigna-
tion to pour upon the heads of any class of citizens engaged in
lawful pursuits. But any individuals of any class that sell liquor
to minors, to inebriates, deserve the heaviest penalties which
society inflicts. The real blame, the sin, the crime of this whole
business--the drink habit as it exists in this country--are all
due to the public. Public opinion could dry it up, could extirpate
it, as thoroughly as larceny or burglary are prevented. Sin exists
--will exist; vice is a part of our probation; temptation is before
us. Drunkenness will exist, perhaps, but not as now openly--
fashionable and laudable. An esteemed friend, a very intelligent
man, said to me not long ago, "This habit will always exist. It
can't be broken up." Not so. Except as the thief exists.
156 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
July 12. Saturday. -- The Democratic nominations at Chicago
are Cleveland and Hendricks. Cleveland will be satisfactory to
the Independent Republicans. He will draw also from the Ger-
mans. However, they are to be classed as Independent Republi-
cans. The result depends on the Irish and Tammany bolters
from the nominations. If they generally support the ticket, it is
likely to be elected. Cleveland will, I suspect, be weakest at the
beginning of the canvass, and gain as it proceeds. This, with-
out having seen any indication of the reception the result has in
the public mind.
SPIEGEL GROVE, July 17, 1884.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--The time you name will suit us exactly,
viz., August 13 on to the end of the month, or as long as you can.
We are now in our best looks, but if the dry weather lasts
much longer, we shall be too dusty for comfort.
We have at home Rutherford and Scott and Fanny. Our
niece, Miss Cook, is now one of the family. She caught a
typhoid fever the last of May, and now, in the seventh week (!),
is still in her room, but will be out in a few days. The time of
contagion, or infection, has long since passed, and no one else
has shown symptoms of the disease. She got it in Philadelphia.
We now have three visitors--ladies--all of whom leave in a
few days. No time could be better for your visit than the
period you suggest.
With all regard to Mrs. Force and Horton from the whole
household. I suspect Horton will find it particularly pleasant
here, and we shall expect him to "paint the place red." That is
the genuine slang, I believe.
R. B. HAYES.
GENERAL M. F. FORCE,
July 21. Monday. -- Birch read Blaine's speech in June 1876
on the Mulligan letters. Blaine showed great apprehension of
disgrace and ruin when he begged the letters of Mulligan. He
NOMINATION OF CLEVELAND 157
spoke of suicide, the ruin of his family, etc., etc. Nothing in the
letters seems to warrant this. There was evidently more in his
transactions with Fisher, or his other railroad transactions, than
has been made public. Otherwise his extreme agitation is un-
August 3. Sunday. -- With Lucy I went to Dayton to attend
the great soldiers' affair and the unveiling of the Soldiers and
Sailors' Monument. Left home Tuesday via Fostoria and Dela-
ware at 10 A. M. Met my old friend John P. Martin, of Lan-
caster, on the cars from Toledo; also A. T. Backus, Professor
McCabe and daughter, etc. Stopped an hour in Delaware with
Carrie Little, the friend of Lucy in her girlhood and the widow
of my old friend and college chum, Dr. John A. Little. Reached
Dayton at 6 P. M. We were met at the station by Major W. D.
Bickham, Honorable Lewis Gunckel, and ---. Remained two
days and three nights at Major Bickham's. A fine family. Mrs.
Bickham a noble woman. They have four boys--all indus-
trious, intelligent, and manly. Two graduates of Princeton, the
others destined to be.
We spent one evening with the widow and daughter Kate of
my old friend Richard C. Anderson. Dined with Mr. Reynolds,
the brother of Eugene, the gallant sergeant-major of the Twenty-
third, who was killed at South Mountain.
We were charmed with two new acquaintances, young ladies,
Eliza Irwin and Kitty Houk. Eliza is a granddaughter of Ad-
miral Schenck; Kitty is a daughter of George W. Houk.
At Major Bickham's fine home, met Senator Sherman, Gen-
eral Hawley, Gober G. Lowe, Houk, my kinsfolk, Mrs. Garst
and Mrs. Morrison -- the first a great-granddaughter of Ezekiel
Hayes and Mrs. Morrison, a widow of her brother.
August 10. Sunday. -- The three obstacles or dangers in our
path: I. Intemperance. 2. Illiteracy. 3. Monster accumula-
tions of wealth in a few hands.
SPIEGEL GROVE, August 11, 1884.
MY DEAR MRS. BICKHAM:--Mrs. Hayes remained in Colum-
bus about a week. I came home the next day after I left Dayton.
158 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
We found our niece much improved and the whole household
none the worse, perhaps the happier by reason of our absence.
This was all that was needed to make our visit with you, for us,
simply perfect. If it turns out also that you were not broken
down by the burden imposed on you, we are ready to hunt up
the white stone to mark the date as one of our selectest and
best. Dayton, [the] Soldiers' Monument, and your family and
the friends you gathered around you will always have a snug
place in our minds and hearts.
Mrs. Hayes joins me in all regards and good wishes to you,
the major, your sister, and those noble young fellows you have
so much reason to be proud of.
R. B. HAYES.
MRS. WILLIAM D. BICKHAM,
August 24. Saturday. -- With Lucy Wednesday morning to
Lakeside, via Sandusky and steamer Ferris, to attend the Twenty-
third reunion. With General Comly, Captain Lyon, Captain
Atkinson, Lieutenant Killam, Kimberley, and others, it was an
exceedingly happy reunion of about forty to fifty of the old
Twenty-third, with their wives and children. Sailing, social
meetings, songs, and recollections made the time pass rapidly and
Captain Lyon told his experience as a prisoner. The Rebels
tried to get the prisoners to sign a petition to President Lincoln,
to exchange man for man and release the surplus on parole. As
we held many more prisoners than the Rebels had of ours, it was
found that the effect would be to fill up the Rebel armies with
healthy men let loose by us. The officers in Libby got up a
counter petition asking Lincoln to do what the interests of the
cause required. The first was rejected with decision. The last
was signed with unanimity. Captain Lyon was appointed on a
commission to present the first named petition in Andersonville.
The result was the same there. So the election for President in
1864 in Andersonville was almost a unanimous vote for Lincoln.
PRISON CONGRESS AT SARATOGA 159
Poor fellows had to be lifted up from the ground while they
signed the petition which would strengthen their country's cause
but which sealed their own doom.
FREMONT, OHIO, August 27, 1884.
MY DEAR SIR:--You are doubtless right as to the time when
the changes at T. [Toledo (?)] should be made. The course of
events should not now be disturbed.
Mrs. Hayes and I hope to visit Mansfield and enjoy the new
home before you return to Washington in December. We go to
our army reunion at Cumberland next week.
Mrs. Hayes joins in kindest regards to Mrs. Sherman and
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE JOHN SHERMAN.
SPIEGEL, September 1, 1884.
MY DARLING:--Your mother and I expect to start this after-
noon for Cumberland to attend the reunion of the Army of West
Virginia. Your mother expects to return Friday. I shall go
to Saratoga and will return about the 10th or 12th.
We remembered the birthday of your mother (28th [of]
August) only with affection. Yours tomorrow will have the
same treatment. But then we do love you all the same--you
darling old girl of seventeen!--With love from all.
MISS FANNY HAYES,
SARATOGA, Tuesday morning, September 9, 1884.
MY DARLING:--We are getting on nicely [with the prison
association meeting] in all respects. You would find life here
interesting for a few days, and with the number of acquaintances
you would meet, you would feel quite at home. The days are
hot but the nights are comfortable. Without you it is, however,
160 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
a poor business. I shall push for home as soon as I can properly
leave. I now expect to leave here tomorrow (Wednesday) eve-
ning and to reach home Thursday evening.
With all love, affectionately,
September 12. Friday. -- Home again. The reunion at Cum-
berland was very successful. Lucy and I enjoyed every moment
of our stay. Generals Crook, Kelley, Powell, Duval, Devol,
Enochs, and other old comrades came together with the old-time
friendship, warm and strong. A hearty welcome and greeting.
The ladies, Mrs. Lowndes, Mrs. Romain, etc., etc., added to
Wednesday evening, 10 P. M., left Saratoga with Rev. Dr.
Byers, General Brinkerhoff, Judge Follett and wife and boy,
Judge Pugh, [and] Mr. Patterson, of Cleveland Reformatory, --
all members of the National Prison Association--via Schenec-
tady and Buffalo. At Cleveland stopped a few hours and dined
with Colonel John Hay.
At Saratoga had a pleasant "so-called" cottage (and all this
in the so-called "nineteenth century") at the United States Hotel;
a ride all round with Mr. Marvin; a most charming social time
with Mr. and Mrs. Round, Dr. Byers, Miss Hall, and Rev. Dr.
Lyman Abbott, at the same table, four full days at all means
[meals]. A capital circle, not to be forgotten.
The work of the association was good. A paper on extradi-
tion. The pardoning power, punishments, the causes of crime,
and other topics were ably handled. The talk of the warden
of Sing Sing (Mr. Brush), the warden of Illinois State Prison,
at Chester, and Mr. Brockway, of Elmira, New York, were
September 14. Sunday.-Dr. Mather preached his last sermon
as our pastor. He was badly treated by the scandal circulated
by a few. His "good gray head" is loved by many; by none
more than by this household. Lucy, Birch, and I with Adda
were the whole circle today. Fanny at Columbus, Scott at a
EARTHQUAKE, SEPTEMBER, 1884 161
chum's near Green Spring, Rud with Webb at a camp of the
Cleveland Cavalry troop near Chautauqua.
Our little squad remembered to talk over the battle at South
Mountain, fought on such a day as this twenty-two years ago
SPIEGEL, FREMONT, September 14, 1884.
MY DEAR GUY:--I have just returned from a two-weeks
trip East--to New York, Saratoga, etc., etc.,--and find here
your very welcome letter. I am especially glad to hear that we
shall have your son so near, and that we may expect to see Mrs.
Ballinger, Bettie, at our home. I will write them today.
My family are all in good health. Fanny will go to school
another year in Cleveland, and perhaps then go East to school
for a year or two. Scott is at an academy near by us. All the
others in business, as they were.
Mrs. Hayes retains her usual good health. I hope to see you
here. Do not leave it out of your plans.
HONORABLE GUY M. BRYAN,
September 16. Tuesday. -- Our pastor leaves us tomorrow.
A good man, badly treated. An able pulpit orator, a gentleman
in the best sense, an humble and sincere Christian. I have stood
by him; helped him beyond my means. God bless him!
September 17. Wednesday. -- Recalled my experience in the
little brick house of Jacob Rudy at Middletown, Maryland, when
twenty-two years ago I lay wounded, listening all day and until
after dark to the sound of the battle. "With us or with our
foes?" running through my head as a chorus to the roar of the
cannon. Often for minutes together the sound of the cannon
was as unbroken as if it were musketry.
September 19. Friday. -- Earthquake! About 3:30 P. M.
Mrs. Hayes, Mrs. Keeler, et al. sitting in this room, the library,
noticed a rumble and shaking. Mrs. Hayes said it must be a
162 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
heavily loaded wagon on our main drive. Going into the kitchen,
Anna, spoke of "the shaking things." Not until we heard from
the village did we understand the cause. I am not sure that I
noticed it. Looking in the cellar for a hammer, something sin-
gular struck me about that time. I now suspect it was the
September 22. Monday.--Another great fire in Cleveland.
This evening saw the new moon over the left shoulder. Betty
Ballinger, daughter of William P. Ballinger, of Galveston, came
today with her young nephew, Guy Bryan, from Ann Arbor to
make us a short visit. She is a charming woman. Guy is a
natural--a born gentleman. He has the good manners of his
father and the amiable and lovable disposition of his mother.
September 23. Tuesday. -- We gave freedom to the slave but
it was for the good of the whole country; nay, it was for the
good of all mankind. We wiped out the line between the North
and the South for the good alike and equally of North and
South. We blotted out the color line in all statute books for the
benefit equally of the white race and the colored race.
September 24. Wednesday. -- Betty Ballinger and Guy Junior
left us after a very happy time for us. All old college times and
persons talked over and particularly all recollections of my Texas
visit in 1848-9. Lucy constantly says what a fine boy Guy is;
how lovable he is. Lucy and I went with them to Toledo; rained
September 27. Saturday. -- Had a meeting of the building
committee in the church and settled with Rev. D. D. Mather.
He has paid out all moneys collected by him as treasurer of the
building fund. We now owe [more than seven thousand dollars].
Due the church on the subscription about twenty-nine hundred
dollars of which three or four hundred may prove uncollectible.
General Robinson speaks here today for the Republican cause.
Mr. Blaine stops here fifteen minutes Monday. His tour is too
hasty to do much except to increase the interest in the election
and thus secure a full vote. This however is not needed in a
Presidential election. A full vote is a matter of course.
CAMPAIGN VISIT OF BLAINE 163
FREMONT, OHIO, September 27, 1884.
MY DEAR WEBB:--Your suggestion is sound. I had arranged
with General Buckland to meet Blaine at Norwalk today. Will
do so Monday--or at Sandusky.
Your mother will not go East with me this time. It is not
best. I expect to go Tuesday morning.
It is a mistake for any one to urge me to be prominent in the
canvass in Ohio. The danger is the liquor question. Mr. Blaine
has a heavy load to carry in that question. Maine originated
prohibition. Now by a three-fourths vote it is put into the con-
stitution. Mr. Blaine's influence could have changed this -- there-
fore, did it -- is the argument. One identified as I am with the
temperance reform would hurt rather than help in the present
WEBB C. HAYES,
September 30. Tuesday. -- Yesterday I went with General
Buckland to meet Mr. Blaine at Norwalk. He and his son,
Walker, with Mr. Tenny, a Mr. Locke, of Madison County, and
a few others, are making a rapid canvassing tour through Ohio.
Great gatherings of people meet them at all stations. As a gen-
eral thing, Mr. Blaine does not attempt to make important argu-
ments. The crowds gathered often are addressed in full stump
speeches by other speakers after Mr. Blaine passes on. This
"progress" will certainly aid to secure a full vote. On the whole,
I do not consider it of much importance; probably it saves ex-
pense and labor to the party.
Mr. Blaine was cordial to me as usual. At Norwalk he in-
troduced me in a friendly way to the audience, and at my own
[town] here, was very complimentary. He is in good voice;
does not take much pains with his speeches. Seems desirous
simply "not to put his foot in it" by what he does say. A good
turnout at all points -- particularly at Norwalk, Sandusky, and
164 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
I start today for New York on Peabody and Slater business.
Will also begin the portrait for the White House by Huntington.
October 2, 1884. Thursday. Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York.
--I reached here yesterday on time, with agreeable travelling
companions, viz., Mr. Herrick, of Cleveland, Mr. Tyler, ditto.
Peabody Board met at 12 noon. Twelve members present.
General Grant was in better health and spirits than we expected.
He was genial, talkative, and interesting. Mr. Evarts invited
me to dine with him this evening.
I met Mr. Huntington with Dr. Curry yesterday and arranged
for a first sitting this morning and have had the sitting. I am
to be taken three-fourths length and with an overcoat on. Mr.
Huntington went with me to Rockwood's, near Seventeenth and
Broadway, and photographs were taken accordingly.
Mr. Fish as a boy met often Albert Gallatin; heard him say
that whe he became Secretary of [the] Treasury he determined to
undo about all that Alexander Hamilton had done -- was greatly
prejudiced against Hamilton. Soon found he had better go slow,
and, at the end of thirteen years, left Hamilton's work almost
entirely undisturbed; convinced of the great ability and wisdom
of Hamilton. Gallatin talked of Washington with great respect;
yielded him credit for his great things--not an admirer; said
Jefferson was fifty years in advance of his time and associates.
When he had any important writing to do always wanted Madi-
Mr. Huntington was with Morse, a portrait painter, learning
his profession, when Morse was in the first steps of the inven-
tion of his recording telegraph. Morse had his pupils as his
witnesses; had them learn the steps made -- the details of his
machines and work.
Both Morse and Henry were conscientious in their rival claims;
both right; both embittered. Morse, practical and successful.
got the popular fame.
NEW YORK, October 2, 1884, 8 A. M.
MY DARLING:--I reached New York on time -- about 10:20
A. M. yesterday after a very agreeable trip. Mr. Herrick, where
PORTRAIT FOR WHITE HOUSE 165
Fanny attended a soiree, was my special travelling companion,
but there were a number of nice people among the passengers
with whom I made or had some acquaintance.
All here regret especially your absence. Only five ladies at
the pleasant banquet last night: Mrs. Fish, Mrs. Governor
[General] Porter, who reminds me of Mrs. June, Mrs. Lyman,
Mrs. Curry, and my comrade for the feast, Miss Mary Evarts.
Thirteen gentlemen in all--and the most sensible and enjoyable
banquet I have attended yet.
General Grant walks with a cane--is probably permanently
crippled,--appears very well, and in the best of temper. He
told good things and delighted us all. I sat next to Mrs. Fish
and got more enjoyment from her conversation and especially
that of Mr. Fish, than ever before.
I called at Mead's new home. It is marvellous what a con-
venient, spacious, and homelike place is built on seventeen feet
width of ground.
I called on Huntington and am to have my first sitting for a
sketch this morning.
With all affection, your
October 3. Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York. -- Yesterday the
Peabody Board closed its session. It was voted to cut Mississippi
off from the Peabody aid to education because that State refuses
to pay to the Peabody Fund what is due on bonds held by the
board. Mr. Evarts and I voted against this. We held that the
cause of education ought not to suffer for the lack of principle
of the Legislature. "Educate the children," I said, "and the
State will pay its debts." I called attention to the amount paid
for student aid, viz., two hundred per year. My resolution to
look into this was voted. The amount should be greatly reduced.
The Slater Board met at 52 William Street, the office of Mr.
Jesup, at 3 P. M. I gave a short address on Mr. Slater. Dr.
Haygood's report of the first year's work is most encouraging
and satisfactory. All the members of the board expressed de-
166 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
cided and warm approval. Mr. Phillips Brooks has signified his
acceptance of the place on the board originally conferred by Mr.
Slater and will attend the meeting of the executive committee
at my room today.
October 4. -- My birthday -- sixty-two years old. In good
health, with spirits youthful and a good deal of physical en-
Last evening, after a good meeting of the Slater Board in
the forenoon, I called with Charles L. Mead at Whitelaw Reid's
room in [the] Tribune building; not in; then on Halstead at
room of New York Extra [a Blaine campaign paper]. He was
looking finely. Talked rapidly in his own old way of Blaine and
his wonderful faculty of remembering and recalling the details of
Irish scenery and families; how he talked to four Irishmen as
if their genealogical trees had been his special study; of his own
blunder in forgetting to give the Irishman Shields the credit of
defeating Stonewall Jackson at Winchester in 1862; of the good
milk eating-house where he got his fresh milk and apple-pie. He
showed it to Mead and me and we did likewise.
Our morning meeting of the Slater Board was attended by
Gilman, Dodge, Slater, Phillips Brooks, the Chief Justice, and
myself. An interesting meeting. The feeling strong that we
ought to have all the time of Dr. Haygood. There will be some
uneasiness unless we get it. Two plans were suggested. To
give Dr. Haygood an increased salary, five thousand dollars, and
travelling expenses, or hire for him an assistant at one thousand
to one thousand five hundred dollars. It was finally resolved
to authorize the president to negotiate with him for his whole
time. Time of meeting changed to May -- third Wednesday,
(Fifth Avenue [Hotel] left optional with the president, also
hour of day). Mr. Dodge and others feel that Dr. Haygood
should be able to spend more time with the board and especially
more time examining industrial schools at the North and attend-
ing the schools aided by us in term time. I must bring this forc-
ibly to Dr. Haygood's attention.
October 8.--Yesterday with Lucy to Toledo; dinner and tea
with Mr. Young. Present, Mrs. Waite (Chief Justice), Mrs.
ACTIVITY OF SLATER BOARD 167
Swayne, Mrs. Young, Noah Swayne, Frank, ditto, [and] Birch-
Rode over to the new rolling-mill--a mill to change pig iron
and old scrap iron into wrought iron bars, sheets, rods, etc., etc.,
of all sizes. Iron for boilers to be a specialty. . . . Seven
hundred and forty hands to be employed; three hundred cottages
to be put up. Other works will cluster around it.
In the evening attended a meeting in the interest of a manual
training school in Toledo.
October 9.--Afternoon, went to the county fair. Found
General Kennedy and brought him home with us. Adda and
R. P. went with Kennedy to the meeting. General Kennedy feels
confident of a large majority for the Republican ticket next Tues-
day. I attended the call for the trustees of the Methodist Epis-
copal church at the new pastor's -- a Mr. Prentiss. We talked
over the affairs of the new edifice, heating, lighting, frescoing,
seating, etc., etc., and found that most of it must be postponed
until we can raise more money by subscription.
October 12. Sunday. -- Birch, Rud, and Webb at home. Our
new minister, Mr. Prentiss, preached an earnest sermon. He
shows a social and friendly magnetism, which with his talents
in the pulpit will I hope enable him to stir the dry bones. A
revival in Fremont is the thing needed.
General Durbin Ward called in the afternoon with Mr. Meek.
He is making campaign speeches for the Democrats. He agrees
with me that the uncertain and unknown quantities in this can-
vass are much larger than usual. More people are unattached
than ever before since the present division of parties. He looks
for a Democratic victory in Ohio, but not with entire confidence.
October 14. Tuesday. -- Election day. Another perfect Octo-
ber day. I think the Republicans will win. On a full vote the
Republican majority I put at thirty thousand. From this deduct
ten to fifteen thousand Prohibition votes and ten thousand saloon
votes. Add five thousand Irish and labor votes and we have left
at least ten thousand majority. I hope for this result.
168 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
October 15. Wednesday.--The election yesterday passed off
with a fine day and full vote. The returns seem to indicate a
rousing Republican victory.
Our County Bible Society holds its yearly meeting soon. As
one of the vice-presidents of the general society of the county,
as a non-church member, a non-professor of religion, I may say
why men of the world, friends of their country and of their race,
should support the religion of the Bible--the Christian religion.
To worship -- "the great Creator to adore" -- the wish to es-
tablish relations with the Omnipotent Power which made the
universe, and which controls it, is a deeply seated principle of
human nature. It is found among all races of men. It is well-
nigh universal. All peoples have some religion. In our day
men who cast off the Christian religion show the innate tendency
by spending time and effort in Spiritualism. If the God of the
Bible is dethroned the goddess of reason is set up. Religion al-
ways has been, always will be. Now, the best religion the world
has ever had is the religion of Christ. A man or a community
adopting it is virtuous, prosperous, and happy.
Byron has said, "If our God was man -- or man, God--
Christ was both"; and continuing he said, "I never arraigned
his creed, but the use--or abuse--made of it."
What a great mistake the man makes who goes about to op-
pose this religion! What a crime, if we may judge of men's acts
by their results! Nay, what a great mistake is made by him who
does not support the religion of the Bible!
October 17. Friday.--I have begun to read with Mrs. Her-
ron and others of the household "Miss Luddington's Sister"--a
queer story so far. Last evening Mrs. Herron called attention
to Dr. Franklin's attempt to reach perfection in virtue, and the
rules he prepared for that purpose. After some searching, we
found the account of it both in Mr. Bigelow's and in Sparks'
copy of the "Autobiography." It is curious reading. We pored
over the "Auto." with interest.
October 18. Saturday.--I am urged by General Keifer, of
Springfield, to go as a spokesman and chairman with a Spring-
THE RELIGION OF THE BIBLE 169
field delegation to meet Blaine at Indianapolis. Of course I
October 21. -- Rode in the afternoon with Lucy and Mrs. Her-
ron down the river on the east side to the end of the road on the
river bank. A charming ride. In the evening read Punch's
tribute to Lincoln by Tom Taylor after his assassination, also
Emerson's fine talk on the same subject. A day to be marked
with a white stone.
October 22. -- Read with Harriet Herbert Spencer on "Why
October 23. Thursday. -- The coldest morning so far this fall.
No rain or snow during the day. A cloudy, cold November day.
Wrote letters and attended to business. Read opening lines of
"Marmion"--"November Sky," and tribute to Pitt and Fox to
Mrs. Herron, and Herbert Spencer on "Music and its Function."
Took in all plants and apples in anticipation of [a] freezing
Private and confidential.
FREMONT, OHIO, October 23, 1884.
DEAR SIR: -- The alleged interview was first published in 1881,
and was explicitly denied at the time. No such interview occurred
and no such statements were made. This denial has been pub-
lished in leading Republican journals recently in Cincinnati, New
York, and Washington.
R. B. H.
MR. J. E. D. WARD.
October 26. Sunday.--I read in the Minneapolis Tribune
this morning [in] a sermon by Talmage: --
"We have an evil that costs the nation more than a billion dol-
lars a year--to support three hundred and fifty thousand crim-
inals, thirty thousand idiots, eight hundred thousand paupers,
and bury seventy-five thousand drunkards."
170 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Is it true? Where does Mr. Talmage get his facts? Are there
trustworthy statistics showing the above? No doubt the truth
on all points is bad enough, but it is hardly credible that seventy-
five thousand drunkards die yearly in this country.
October 27. Monday. -- Lucy and I go to Cleveland this morn-
ing. She will preside at the meeting of the Woman's Home
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. I will
attend a meeting commemorating the completion of Bishop Be-
dell's twenty-five years as bishop and will say a few words
by way of tribute to this excellent man, who has been these many
years my much valued friend.
10 A. M. I have just received a dispatch from Sophia Wasson
(White) that her mother is dead and will be buried tomorrow,
the 28th, at 2 P. M. She came to Ohio with my father and
mother in 1817. I do not know her age but suppose it to be
about eighty. My earliest recollections are connected with her.
She remained a member of our family until after she was mar-
ried to Thomas Wasson, when she moved into his house across
the street about 1830. I recollect her marrying well. Mr. Was-
son said as I was going with him across the muddy street, "Rud,
look out for the mud." She was always good to sister Fanny
and myself, so kind; a woman of strong mind; an exact mem-
ory for names, events, and dates that was simply a marvel.
October 29. -- Dr. Haygood says [of] one hundred and thirty-
four counties [in Georgia] eighty-five adopt and enforce local
option, and [in] about twelve others, parts of counties--dis-
tricts -- exclude liquor selling.
I attended yesterday the funeral of Mrs. Wasson. Arcena
[Smith] Wasson was born December 7, 1797. She died from
a fracture of the neck of the thigh-bone (the result of a fall
some six weeks ago) on Sunday [the] 26th. I rode to the ceme-
tery with Mrs. --- (nee Welch), with Miss Mendenhall as
my lady companion. Much pleasant talk of old times and of
Mrs. Wasson. She was the embodiment of industry, hon-
esty, truthfulness, and efficiency.
After the funeral, with Thomas F. Joy, went to the college
BISHOP BEDELL HONORED 171
chapel; attended prayers. A noble sight -- six hundred to eight
hundred young people--students; spoke a word to them.
At Cleveland (27th) was present at the celebration of the
twenty-fifth anniversary of the consecration of Bishop Bedell.
A beautiful church and fine audience; made a short, well-re-
ceived speech. Lucy remained to take part in the meeting of
Woman's Home Missionary Society.
From Delaware to Toledo in the evening of Tuesday; staid
at Island House 27th [28th], and at 8 A. M. home again. Found
as guests, Miss Sherman, Dr. A. G. Haygood, and Morton, the
executive clerk [during my Administration] who read the papers
and put in a scrapbook extracts for my reading that would show
the current talk, both friendly and hostile.
Dr. Haygood came in response to my letter informing him of
the desire of the Slater [trustees] to secure his whole time for
their work. He seems to like the idea; is embarrassed by the pe-
cuniary condition of the college he is at the head of. He will
try to help them out, and if successful will come to us.
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