THE GRAND ARMY AND THE SOUTH--EXPANSION OF
STATE UNIVERSITY - REVIEW OF ADMINISTRATION -
EDUCATION FOR THE NEGRO - INTEREST IN OHIO
WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY-- VISIT TO NEBRASKA-- IN-
SISTENCE ON IMPORTANCE OF MANUAL TRAINING-
ARMY REUNION AT HUNTINGTON--DEATH OF JUDGE
JOHNSTON - TRIP THROUGH SOUTH - GROWING
PUBLIC ESTEEM--APRIL 1891-JANUARY 1892
APRIL 27, 1891. Monday.-Reached Steubenville to attend
the G. A. R. State Encampment about 7:30 P. M. On
the train were Judge J. L. Green, Proctor, Hineline, and many
other comrades from northwestern Ohio. I was met at the
station in Steubenville by Mr. Robert Sherrard and taken to
his hospitable and excellent home.
May 1. Friday.-The Sherrards at Steubenville made me
at home in the most agreeable way three nights and days. I
then went to Cleveland and there with Webb at Mrs. Austin's
until this afternoon, when home with Miss Mattie Avery.
During the G. A. R. Encampment the weather was simply
perfect. The people of the town were patriotic and generous.
The only thing to disturb was the disposition of one or two men
to scold the South - to discuss irritating topics in an ill-
tempered way. This is in bad taste, is bad policy, and bad on
principle. Silence on that which breeds ill temper is the true
course. The Southern people are our countrymen. They dis-
played great endurance and courage, great military traits of
character during the war. Let us now as soon as possible bring
them into good relations with those who fought them. Let us
become one people.
May 2. Saturday.-At the G. A. R. [State Encampment]
there was a little demagoguery in the way of keeping alive the
2 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
bitterness of the war. A motion was made and carried against
the purchase of Chickamauga battlefield, against Rebel monu-
ments, etc., etc. The truth is, the men of the South believed in
their theory of the Constitution. There was plausibility, per-
haps more than plausibility, in the States' rights doctrine under
the terms and in the history of the Constitution. Lee and Jack-
son are not in the moral character of their deeds to be classed
with Benedict Arnold. They fought for their convictions, for
their country as they had been educated to regard it. Let them
be mistaken, and treated accordingly. Their military genius and
heroism make the glory of the Union triumph.
May 5. Tuesday. --I go on duty this morning to Columbus
to attend an important meeting of the university board. The
Legislature has been liberal. We must now build up a genuine
and creditable institution. At the same time we must have a
due and generous regard for the plain people. The mechanics
and farmers must see in our actions that their interests, wishes,
and feelings are first in our thoughts.
Reached Columbus before noon. I stopped at the office of
Captain Cope, secretary of the university. On the train had a
pleasant talk with Dr. Forbes, formerly Democratic mayor of
Toledo and now member of the Loyal Legion. An intelligent,
genial gentleman. Found in session the board, viz., President
Godfrey, Massie, Wing, Dr. Schueller, Miller. We soon reached
the topic of interest. President Scott yielded to the inevitable.
I wrote a resolution: That it is expedient to erect, as soon as
practicable, 1. A manual training building to cost forty-five
thousand dollars with equipment; 2. A geological museum and
accommodations for library; 3. An armory, assembly room, and
gymnasium. - To be begun in the order named. All to be begun
A friendly and harmonious discussion, embracing funds, plans,
and professors, resulted in the adoption of my resolution with-
After much miscellaneous business we adjourned to dinner.
At 3 P. M. took street cars to the university. Looked
at ground for buildings. No attempt to reach final decision.
An evening session to prepare for building.
GRAND ARMY AND THE SOUTH 3
May 7. Thursday.--I have written ten letters this morning
I have read the bright and sparkling "In Memoriam" on Sher-
man by Colonel Stone, of the Massachusetts Commandery. He
does belittle the military achievements of Sherman. And yet
Sherman as a man, as an unique and interesting figure in our
American war, is enlarged. He [Stone] is correct in saying
that the name of Sherman is not connected with any great battle,
any famous victory. He was not a battle general. His military
renown rests on campaigns. Colonel Stone is mistaken when
he says Sherman failed to break up and destroy Johnston's
army. True, under Johnston, that army of skilful retreats was
saved from destruction. But under Hood, it is true that he
did break up that army. It got itself out of his way, and was
destroyed at Franklin and Nashville.
FREMONT, OHIO, May 7, 1891.
MY DEAR FRIEND:--I wrote you last month, or longer ago,
on hearing from you when you were at Saint Augustine. The
letter has come back to me. You were downhearted. I was in
one of the moods which visit me sometimes, and wrote accord-
ingly. It is better that it did not reach you. But my feelings,
my sympathies, are with you.
I met your nephew [Charles W. Fairbanks] a moment in
Cleveland the other day. He has heart. - Well. - Love to Mrs.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
May 8. Friday.--In the evening at General Buckland's.
With the general were initiated as members of the Union Vet-
erans' Union by Colonel Packer, Judge Green and about thirty
of the comrades. All the ceremony similar to that of other
societies. Too many army societies. But if I can't have unity
4 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
by inducing others to join the older societies, I will try to have
it by uniting with them.
May 10. Sunday. - Lucy was, I am confident, the first woman
ever chosen an honorary member of an army society. She was
made a member in 1886 at Portsmouth, or earlier at Ironton.
She wore the badge on all soldier occasions which she attended.
Read Milton's "Lycidas," Macaulay on William the Third, on
his excellent wife Mary, on Jeffreys, on Sir William Temple;
and also Ruskin on the "Queen's Lilies."
May 11. Monday.-- This week [I must] prepare for the
meeting of the Slater Fund trustees in New York, and for the
Memorial Day speech at Dayton.
General Sherman once said our Republic has passed through
the perils and pains of infancy. It has had its mumps, its
measles, its whooping-cough, and the Rebellion was its scarlet
fever-its bloody, its blood-red fever. It has now reached
manhood, maturity, and should play a man's part in the affairs
of nations. The great nations have always altered and amended
the so-called law [of nations] to suit their own ideas of justice
and self-interest. Let us. let America try her hand as one of
the world's lawmakers.
Our idea is that each man has a right to choose his own
residence. Residence and home decide citizenship and allegiance.
We should firmly hold that when a European adopts America
as his home, his allegiance to his old home ceases. Italy no
longer expends a dollar to hold in order, to punish for crime,
to prevent the crimes of her former subjects now at home in
New Orleans. She no longer pretends even to be responsible
for their acts in New Orleans. Would Italy indemnify the
family of the chief of police of New Orleans for the assassina-
tion of the head of the family ? The plain answer to the demand
of Italy is: The men executed by the mob were no longer your
subjects. They had left Italy permanently- forever. They
had adopted America as their home. As between Italy and
America, they were Americans. America has a right to punish
them for crime. If by a court and jury, it is well. If by the
vote of a mass meeting, that is a question for America alone
AMERICA AND LAW OF NATIONS 5
to deal with. As between our country and other countries, the
only question for discussion even is this, Did they deserve their
More [than] twenty-five years ago, the largest number of
men armed with muskets ever gathered by one nation were
under the flag of the United States, and that too when almost
three-fourths of a million of men were in arms under the flag
of the Confederate States. Now all are under the same flag
and are more than double in number.
May 12. Tuesday.--Dr. Louis Albert Banks lectured on
"The Last of the American Kings." Ah, Mr. Banks, the last in
name; but do we not have self-chosen rulers in abundance, with
power and disposition to oppress?
I have a dispatch from my friend, William Henry Smith [an-
nouncing the death of Mrs. Smith]. She had long been a suf-
ferer, and little hope was entertained of her recovery. A part-
ing, a lopping off of a large part of life, a loneliness -these are
words that tell much, and yet a small part of it.
FREMONT, OHIO, May 13, 1891.
MY DEAR MAJOR: - With the most agreeable recollections
of your roof and of all beneath it, I do not allow your invitation
to grow cold, but accept, hot-foot, with cordial thanks.
About the evening of May 29, a wayfarer, probably still with
the grippe in a moderate form, will pitch his satchel into your
As to Sister Fanny, I have not seen her since the letter, but
I suspect she has an engagement East that will interfere.
With kind regards to Mrs. Bickham.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MAJOR W. D. BICKHAM,
May 15. - I am reminded that when I had a chance to strike
strong and continuously in favor of civil service reform, I did
6 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
not do all that the special friends of the reform hoped I would
do. The writer pays me the compliment of saying that no one
has ever done more in the Presidential office. That Cleveland
failed to come up to just expectations, etc., etc.
In reply: - No doubt there were shortcomings. It must be
remembered that "only one battle can be fought at a time."
Before I reached Washington the situation had vastly changed
from what it was when the nominations were made and when
the Letter of Acceptance was written. In July 1876 the reform
was the living issue. In March 1877, after the close, bitter dis-
puted election, after the Southern question was pushed to the
front, the one great need of the country was peace, harmony, re-
conciliation. My thoughts and efforts were all required and were
all bent to accomplish that end. Other questions were not
neglected, but were to some extent postponed.
Very soon the hard times, the dreadful riots of 1877, the
financial condition, became the burning question. All were
anxious on that head. That was the one battle to be gained or
ruin would follow. Few men knew its peril. It is simply true
that a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress were ready
and anxious to repeal the Resumption Act and to launch the
country on the dangerous sea of unlimited and irredeemable
paper currency. This could not be prevented merely by a veto.
The veto would have been pushed aside by Congress. The only
salvation was in Congress and in the committees on finance.
Action must be prevented. It was prevented, and by the influence
of the Administration with unfriendly Senators and Representa-
tives. The history of the how has not been written. Very few
know it. There was nothing questionable done. The truth
brought home to a few minds did it. But I could not fight both
battles at the same time, with equal vigor and success. Look at
the vote on overruling the veto of the Silver Bill and the
gravity of the situation on resumption and inflation can be dis-
May 16. Saturday.--Read last evening the speeches on
Randall. His greatest act was in 1877--holding the scales
even in carrying out the Electoral Commission's decision.
HAYES AND CIVIL SERVICE REFORM 7
May 22. Friday.-Returned last evening from New York
where I had a very interesting and agreeable meeting with the
trustees of the Slater Fund. . . . Reached New York Mon-
day forenoon. That evening, until 11 P. M., with the educa-
tional committee of the Slater Fund at my rooms, Fifth Avenue
Hotel. Present: Dr. Curry, President Gilman, Governor Col-
quitt, Dr. Broadus, Mr. Jesup, and Mr. Dodge.
Tuesday, called at 9 University Place with above gentlemen.
Met Messrs. Armstrong (General, of Hampton), Rev. Dr. Mc-
Vicar, Colonel Auchmuty, Dr. Butler, et al. Instructive and
interesting. Afternoon, with Mr. Hoffman, superintendent pub-
lic schools, visited a most interesting school at the famous "Five
Points," Number 23 primary school--ten to thirteen of age;
twenty-seven nationalities represented in the three hundred.
Manual training vindicated. Dined 7 P. M. with Mr. and Mrs.
Jesup. Very agreeable.
Wednesday, regular meeting at the office of the United States
Trust Company. Present all except Chief Justice Fuller and
Bishop Potter. An efficient and harmonious meeting.
[That night, at] 6 P. M., train home. Judge Stephenson
Burke gave me a berth in his stateroom. A most interesting
talk with him. He is a pronounced, able, and sincere plutocrat.
The rich, he thinks, give employment to the poor, and are es-
sential to civilized society. He would like to found a family;
to entail property.
Rose at five this morning and have spent the day in bringing
up correspondence and trimming trees. The latter very agree-
May 25. Monday.--Eleven months and one year ago this
morning my darling went to her rest! Her wonderful gifts
still grow on me. I think of her with less emotion as time passes
but oh, there are the sad days. I will visit her grave, as I often
do, this morning.
Afternoon, struck a few effective blows towards completing
my Memorial Day talk at Dayton.
8 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, May 26, 1891.
MY DEAR MAJOR:- I am not yet quite rid of my mild type
of grippe. I must therefore in my travelling coddle myself. I
go from Toledo to Dayton Friday--leaving about noon and
reaching Dayton about five.
With a nap in the afternoon, I am fresh as a daisy. Possibly
old age has something to do with it as well as the grippe....
With regards to Mrs. Bickham.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MAJOR W. D. BICKHAM.
May 28. Thursday. - I go over to Toledo to visit Mary and
the boys. Will remain till Friday. Go then to Dayton. From
Dayton I go to Cleveland, expecting thence to go with Mrs.
Austin, Miss Avery, and Fanny to Mohonk Lake to attend the
Negro Conference of which Lyman Abbott is the active man
with President [Merrill E. Gates] of Amherst and Dr. Strieby
as next friends and efficient co-workers. I am president--
something more than a figurehead, or deadhead.
We have no new gospel to offer. The ideas and aims of last
year are still the leading ones. Education, education, education,
are the words. Religious, industrial, normal, and more than
ever before, home education and the education of women are
the crying needs of the hour. How best to do this, how to in-
crease the means of doing this, are the questions. More than
ever before I am impressed with the conviction that the chief
burden of the work is to rest upon the people of the South,
both white and colored. Its success depends mainly on them.
The aim of our efforts is to encourage and to aid them. They
have done and are doing a great deal.
June 9. Tuesday. - Reached home before 10 A. M. having
left Mohonk Lake before 9 A. M. yesterday. A good trip of
almost two weeks.
May 29 (Friday), a happy day with Birchard and Mary and
the little boys until 10 A. M. Then to Dayton. Met by Major
Bickham and General Wood who took me to the Phillips House.
MOHONK NEGRO CONFERENCE 9
In the evening the G. A. R. of Old Guard Post called and made
me an honorary member.
May 30, evening, a great audience in the opera house. My
speech went off well. At the club late. Took train for Cleve-
land. . . . With Fanny, Mrs. Austin, and Miss Avery,
reached Mohonk about 3 P. M., Tuesday, June 2. Met com-
mittee and Mr. Smiley that evening.
Wednesday [I] read a short talk to the Conference--mainly
extracts from Haygood. A good meeting. Thursday and Fri-
day, the Negro Conference was interesting and instructive.
Much to encourage. Conference on the whole useful
June 10. Wednesday.--All day busy with correspondence.
Read the "Baccarat Case" in England. All events tend to shake
the throne and the aristocracy. The Prince of Wales in a bad
box. The attack on him by the Cummings-Clarkes attracts atten-
tion and admiration. "If Cummings leaves the army, the Prince
and Williams must leave it also."
June 11. Thursday.--Light showers yesterday. Caught in
two of them. This brought a slight return of the singular
disease [grippe], so prevalent and so persistent. My description
I repeat: "It fills your head with pains. You hate your best
friends and forget their names."
Uncle Birchard read John Ruskin. He was the favorite
author with him. Not with me. Mine is and for forty years
has been Emerson. Ruskin says many good things--some
that are worthy of Emerson. How apt for present purposes
this is: "Whenever in any religious faith, dark or bright, we
allow our minds to dwell upon the points in which we differ
from other people, we are wrong, and in the Devil's power.
That is the essence of the Pharisee's thanksgiving,- 'Lord,
I thank thee that I am not as other men are' "-and so on
for several sentences.
June 21. Sunday. - Two years ago! She grows more lovely,
more interesting. I live more to think of her wonderful char-
acter and ability - with more pleasure too.
10 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
I came home from Cleveland last evening. Spent last Sunday
at President Bashford's happy home in Delaware. Heard his
fine baccalaureate sermon, lofty and noble, narrowed in one
paragraph by a lift for prohibition and the Prohibition party.
We can all see that prohibition as taught is a poor compromise.
It seeks to punish the seller and it seeks to excite sympathy for
the buyer as a victim. How foolish!
Monday, with the board of trustees. Was made temporary
chairman vice our venerable deceased president, Dr. Trimble.
Seeing a disposition to make me permanent chairman, I closed
it out (having no time for it) by calling to my chair Mr. Gray.
He was elected permanent president, an excellent appointment
and appropriate on all accounts. Tuesday, ditto as to business.
Thursday, Commencement. Very encouraging. Ninety-three
graduates, two-thirds men. Fifteen spoke, a few of them ladies.
Altogether very creditable. More than one hundred in each
college class and two hundred and thirteen in the freshman.
I made a semihumorous talk. A few sober words for peace
in the church, quoted Ruskin effectively, and opposed heresy-
mongers and heresy hunters, who make heresy popular, [saying
in substance] :--"Beware of the old bigot who sets up as a
heresy hunter. He is empty of all good. He is full of mis-
chief. He will do harm and harm only to the cause he professes
to advocate. I hope there will he no heresy taught under this
roof or any of these roofs. But if there is, I hope no man will
be so foolish as to waste his time trying to find it or making it
popular by persecuting it. The best antidote for heresy is not
doctrinal or dogmatic teaching or preaching but earnest, af-
firmative, heartfelt Christian work."
At night on Bee Line to Cleveland. [On the] 19th,
presided at the meeting of the Western Reserve Historical So-
ciety and made a short speech in the hope to aid in raising money
to buy a good fire-proof building which can be had on favor-
able terms and which is much needed.
Vice-President Warner of Baldwin University, Berea, our
guest. He preached a good sermon. It was new to me that
love as a noun and a verb in the New Testament is in the orig-
inal always the same word when applied to love of God, and is
INTEREST IN UNIVERSITIES 11
a different word from that used for all other love. It implies
something of admiration, awe, and devotion, not the instinc-
tive attachment of parents and children, of young women and
men, etc., etc.
June 26. Friday.- Left Cleveland early morning train and
reached home (old Spiegel) about 9 A. M. All well.
[On the] 22d, reached Columbus at 11 A. M. Stopped at
Captain Cope's office on High Street. Executive committee of
Ohio State University, viz., Godfrey, Wing, and Massie hard
at work. Joined them making a quorum. About 12:30 ad-
journed for dinner. Went to Dr. Erskine B. Fullerton's and
my lovely nieces, Fanny, Laura Fullerton, and the young folks.
Also called on Laura Mitchell. Found them full of the wed-
ding. Met Mr. Edward Wall and his parents. Did business
with the trustees to a late hour. On my motion the geological
building was referred to Professor Orton to attend to, plan, etc.
[On the] 23d, Tuesday, same trustees' business continued.
Evening, heard the governor's address to graduates of literary
societies. Hot and crowded. A discursive, sensible talk, with
flashes of humor.
[On] Wednesday, 24th, the beautiful wedding [of Fanny
Platt to Edward Wall] in the Episcopal church, southeast cor-
ner Third and Broad. All passed off in a charming way. Mr.
and Mrs. Wall- good angels guard and keep them!
Afternoon, at a banquet of alumni. Made a rattling speech -
well received--in favor of realizing "the dream of universal
education," and with a squint towards equal rights.
[At] 10 P. M. with Webb on Big Four to Cleveland. [The]
25th, attended to my duties in charge of the manual training
department of Ohio State University. Anderson gave me his
notions as to building, equipment, and teachers. These are all
in my charge by vote of the board.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, June 27, 1891.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--My friendship for Mr. Windom began
in 1865 when we met in the House of Representatives as mem-
12 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
bers of the Thirty-ninth Congress. He was a member of the
Thirty-sixth Congress and was at once recognized as an able
and growing man. His judgment was sound, and he combined
in an unusual degree good temper and kindliness of nature with
force and firmness. Without effort he made friends and was
without enemies. He won confidence by deserving it. With
a sound head, he had in full measure the essential virtues of
perseverance, honesty, and fidelity to duty. Mr. Conkling is
said to have spoken of him as his ideal of what a President
should be. He did not win by brilliancy or magnetism. He
was safe. He could be trusted. Those who knew him intimately
loved him most. When he died it was felt throughout the land
that a wise man and a patriot had fallen and friendly words
were spoken in every quarter.
His influence in the country, his reputation as a man and as
statesman were mainly due to his pure and noble character.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
June 28. Sunday.--Today two years ago the funeral! The
July number of the United Service Magazine contains a fair
sketch of me, with a good portrait. The sketch as to my mili-
tary record quotes General Grant's opinion and General Sher-
man's. It would be well to have quoted also the words of the
Ohio soldiers in the Army of Sheridan in 1865 - the resolution
they adopted nominating me for governor; also the letter of
General Comly in full on the battles in the Valley in 1864. (see
"Ohio in the War," 2 vol., p. 165-6 and vol. 1, p. 849.)
June 30. - Correspondence. Meditated talk on education in
its broadest sense--head, heart, hand--as the remedy for the
evils that now threaten; education in true Americanism, in
Fourth of July Americanism, in the Americanism of the Dec-
laration of Independence, of the Sermon on the Mount.
July 1, 1891. - With Rutherford, I go tomorrow to speak at
a Chautauqua assembly (Fourth of July) at Beatrice, Nebraska.
Also expecting to accept invitation received from Omaha Com-
TRIP TO NEBRASKA 13
panions of the Loyal Legion. I will make an old-fashioned war
talk, with a push for education as the remedy for wealth and
July 8. Wednesday. - Returned from a delightful journey to
Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, etc. Left Omaha at 4 P. M.
yesterday and today at same hour--twenty-four hours--have
completed the trip of eight hundred miles.
Thursday, 2d, with Rutherford took the fast train to Chicago.
At St. Joseph, Missouri, next morning about eight.
The Missouri River no longer navigated by steamers or any im-
portant craft. The farms in Missouri in very fine condition;
crop prospects excellent. The same in southeastern Nebraska
and northeastern Kansas. Found friends at Beatrice, a fine
growing town of fifteen thousand. The postmaster, a member
of the Loyal Legion, was at once and throughout very attentive
and friendly. Had calls from leading people, Democrats as
well as Republicans. Judge -, a Democrat, said he always
stood by the correctness of my conduct. "After the Democrats
prepared the medicine, mixed the dose, they ought to take it.
Whatever we may think of Louisiana, the decision was against
us, of our own tribunal. You had no connection with any
wrong, if there was one. Your action was right."
[The] Fourth, Saturday, . . . [at] 11 A. M. went to
the Chautauqua grounds and tabernacle. Heard a good Fourth
of July talk. On the request of Rev. Dr. Davidson, I spoke
ten minutes on manual training; told my chestnuts--"the dif-
ference between a hobby and a horse"--acceptably. At about
3 P. M., to a great audience, spoke on the results of the war.
[At] 7 P. M., with J. W. Paddock of Omaha, Rutherford,
and the postmaster in crowded car to Lincoln.
July 5, Sunday, reached Omaha about 10 A. M. With Pad-
dock went to hear Mr. Duryea at the Congregational church.
A quiet sermon in delivery, but full of meat of the equal-rights
sort. Dined with Captain James C. McKell. A fine family,
very-six young folks from twenty down, all promising. Mrs.
McKell very pleasant.
July 6, Monday, with Captain Swob, of the Millard [Hotel].
14 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
drove over the growing, attractive city of Omaha. Wide streets,
beautiful trees, stupendous buildings. A noble city site. A
future. Afternoon, went on top of the New York Life build-
ing. A wide, grand landscape. Fortunate Omaha!
In the evening at the club, a charming time. A banquet to me
by the Loyal Legion Commandery of Nebraska. Paddock pre-
sided. He, General Burke, and many others made suitable
speeches. I spoke offhand--fairly well -in a quiet conversa-
tional way. Back to the Millard soon after midnight.
Tuesday, dined with General Hawley, formerly Member of
Congress from Illinois, and in the Treasury with John Sher-
man, in my time. A fine social event. Wife and daughters
(two) very attractive persons.
At 4 P. M. bid good-bye to the good friends; to Rutherford
who goes to Duluth. Hanscomb and others on train; good
Wednesday awoke at LaSalle after a good sleep on the train.
At Englewood near Chicago got off the train, and after lunch
took the fast mail for the east. Soon was met by Hon.
Henderson of Illinois. He knew Lincoln from his (Hen-
derson's) boyhood. Voted for him as Senator nine times before
Lincoln insisted that his friends should vote for Trumbull.
This elected Trumbull. If Lincoln had been chosen to the
Senate he might probably have lost the Presidency. This hap-
pened to me in Sherman's contest in 1872. I declined the bird
in the hand and it gave me the higher place. Mr. Henderson
was exceedingly interesting in his talk generally, but especially
as to Lincoln. He promised to send me copies of two letters of
Lincoln on the senatorial election.
July 10. Friday. - Birchard, Mary, Sherman, and little Webb
Cook with his nurse, arrived from Toledo to make a long visit
to old Spiegel. . . . A happy time for Spiegel. Sherman
looks well--a handsome, energetic little boy, fond of all out-of-
door life. . . . Webb Cook was nine months old the 25th
of June. He is handsome and bright--an excellent child,
happy and good-natured. We drove to the town and up to
the cemetery. The trees on our lot are in fine condition.
TRIP TO NEBRASKA 15
July 11. Saturday. - We have had fires morning and evening
for some days. Reading Seward's "Life and Letters"-a cap-
ital book. A man of cheerful, hopeful mood, full of shrewd-
ness; a good writer and speaker. Seward says: "I let it pass
on the ground that it is impossible to correct popular errors en-
gendered in political heat." In my case it is not important to
correct most of them. Seward said and did a world of good
things tending to rescue the nation from its great agony in
July 16. Thursday.- Cousin Charlotte Birchard writes me
that she has sold the new house on the site of the burned old
home for two thousand dollars. It is just finished and cost two
thousand nine hundred dollars! So the good old Uncle Austin
Birchard home passes from the family. How long before this
dear old Spiegel--the home of Uncle Birchard and of Lucy
will pass into other --into strangers' hands? Sad to think of
these transitory scenes!
She also finds in Harper, for November 1880, (p. 873), by
Rev. John W. Chadwick: "He writes of a friend and neigh-
bor who knows the home and ancestry of every resident" at
Chesterfield, Massachusetts:-- . . . "He can tell me who
brought the first pineapple to Chesterfield - a boy from Brattle-
boro, who is now President Hayes. His venerable aunt, who
lives beside our village green, assures me that she always knew
Rutherford would turn out well." I did visit Chesterfield with
my mother and sister Fanny in June or July 1834, and it may
be I took the village its first pineapple. My "venerable aunt"
was Aunt Bancroft, a sister of my father, a superior woman,
who died aged about ninety.
July 23. Thursday. -I went to Columbus Monday to meet
the board of the Ohio State University and the architect on the
new buildings, especially the manual training building.
There ought to be a radical reform in our public education.
Less education by the use of books, more education by training
the hands and eyes. Less that is impractical and non-productive,
more that is practical and productive.
Tuesday, met with the trustees of the university on the build-
16 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
ing of the geological and library building, the manual training
building, and the law school.
Yesterday visited the university and examined ground for
buildings. [Left at] 4: 15 P. M. and spent the night at Toledo-
the Boody House.
July 29. Wednesday. --I go today to Sandusky, en route to
Lakeside, to introduce my old comrade William McKinley, now
the Republican candidate for governor, to an audience in the
Lakeside auditorium. Without intervening between him and
Governor Campbell, I shall give a little sketch of his early life,
as a comrade talking as
"-becometh comrades, free
Reposing after victory."
From Lakeside I go to Cleveland to meet George W. Ryder
of the University School, Cleveland, and F. L. Packard, of Co-
lumbus, the architect of our manual training building, to ex-
amine and decide upon plans.
I have become interested in university extension and have
[encouraged ( ?)] the National Society entitled, "The American
Society for the Extension of University Teaching." Its aim
is to extend to all men and women, especially to all the young,
the benefits of "the higher education." Our primary education
is liberally endowed by the State. So is the secondary in the
grammar and high schools. But [sufficient opportunity for] the
higher education is not yet provided.
Reached Lakeside early in the evening. Met Dr. Belt and
others. McKinley and Governor Campbell were there. At a
meeting in the hotel parlor of the alumni and students of the
Ohio Wesleyan University presided over by Colonel Warnock,
we had a laughing time, to which Professor Whitlock, Gover-
nor Campbell, Major McKinley, and I contributed.
July 30, 1891. - Lakeside auditorium. I presided at the meet
ing of the Farmers' Alliance. I introduced a good speaker,
Joshua Crawford, secretary of the Ohio Farmers' Alliance, who
entertained a good audience. Afternoon I introduced McKinley
who made a vigorous, able speech for protection.
NATIONAL G. A. R. AT DETROIT 17
August 8. Saturday.--Returned this morning from Detroit.
Reached there Monday forenoon to attend the National Encamp-
ment of the G. A. R. Colonel Frank J. Hecker and a party of
the Loyal Legion met me at Woodward Avenue Station. A
happy time with Colonel Hecker and the rest (Mr. Freer, par-
ticularly) of his family until I left [this morning] for home.
August 10. Monday. - Dined with Dudrow to meet Miss
[Farley], a niece of Mrs. Edward Leppelman. She was adopted
as a daughter by Edward Leppelman and he left her by will
(1870 to 1874) his plantation in East Feliciana, Louisiana, of
seventeen hundred acres. She is a very small black-haired
woman of New England ancestry. Without a white man on
the place, with about twenty families of negroes, she has suc-
cessfully run the plantation more than fifteen years. Her white
neighbors are kind and friendly and her negro people are steady,
honest, and industrious. She said that in 1876 no Republican
was allowed to vote. The only vote for Hayes was that of a
gentleman on Mr. Leppelman's plantation. He did it at the
risk of his life! The honest vote of the parish would [have]
given[n] Hayes some twelve hundred majority, while the vote
as cast gave Tilden over seventeen hundred majority!
August 12. Wednesday. - Miss Alice Farley is esteemed by
her neighbors and her social relations are altogether pleasant.
She was engaged to be married to a Mr. Mann who owned an
adjacent plantation. He died a short time before the time fixed
for the wedding. When he was taken sick she was North get-
ting her wedding trousseau. He was the man who cast the
only vote for Hayes in the parish in 1876. The intimidation
and fraud caused a loss to Hayes on the face of the returns of
not less than three thousand votes in this single parish. If it
had been known that Mr. Mann had cast the vote he probably
would have been assassinated!
August 14.--A laudatory article in the Seattle Post and In-
telligencer, sent me by Comrade E. H. Smith, Fairhaven, Wash-
ington. Many friendly notices lately; started by the incidents
at the National Encampment of the G. A. R. - some of them
2 H. D.
18 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, August 15, 1891.
MY DEAR AUNTY DAVIS:--Returning home a few days ago
I found here your welcome letter from the far-away Old Coun-
try. It finds us with a house full of good people. Birchard,
Mary, the two fine boys, Mrs. Austin of Cleveland, and Adda
and Mr. Huntington. Our home folks are all as usual. Ruther-
ford is at Duluth. Adda had been feeling badly in Cincinnati
a few days, and . . . [now] is seriously sick. .
Mrs. Austin was especially glad with us on the receipt of
your letter. We all felt rejoiced that you could write with
something of your old-time good spirits-with your accus-
tomed interest in the young people who are with you.
I keep busy in the old ways. If not occupied the loss will
cover me with darkness. No better refuge than the engrossing
work which calls me.
You do not speak definitely of your return. It is, I assume,
your purpose to be with us in the fall again. Do not forget
that your home - one of your homes - is in this old-fashioned
place where we will rejoice to add to your comfort and hap-
piness.-Fanny and all beneath this roof join in kindest re-
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. ELIZA G. DAVIS.
August 22. Saturday. - Returned with Fanny last night from
Lakeside and Twenty-third Reunion, after an agreeable week
of absence from Spiegel. Welcomed loudly by the English
mastiff "Deke" and "Dot," the cocker spaniel. Webb and Mr.
Miles arrived soon after. Found Adda Cook [Huntington]
still in bed and very ill.
August 24. Monday. - My good friend Dr. Haygood bor-
rowed money of me -or rather of the savings bank on my en-
dorsement. I had no money to lend. He fails to pay on a dun
from Rutherford. He writes explaining. It is simply im-
possible for him to pay. I wrote him this morning.
COURTESY TO A CREDITOR 19
FREMONT, August 24, 1891.
MY DEAR FRIEND:--Returning home after protracted ab-
sences I find here, and have just read, your letter of the 8th
instant. My son Rutherford runs my finances, and I suspect
has a hard time of it. With a good deal of property, almost all
of it unproductive real estate, I am heavily in debt, and now
at all times hard up. I earn nothing by any services or opera-
tions. I do not try to earn money and for the most part pay
my own expenses. Several families besides my own are on my
hands. In the White House I spent all I got (contrary to the
popular notion) and since have had an expensive household.
But why worry you with this? My son has to scratch together
all he can from every quarter; so excuse him if he is im-
You see the situation and will do what you can, I know.
Your case is only a drop in the bucket. All of my boys are
making a living and are good. So do the best you can and
be easy in your mind. Our friendship will suffer no strain,
whatever the result. I shall always be grateful that it fell to
me to make your acquaintance and enjoy your friendship.
God bless you and yours.
Always your friend, sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
P. S. - Colonel H. C. Corbin and family are my particular
friends. In the army and stationed at Los Angeles. I hope
you will know them. H.
REV. DR. A. G. HAYGOOD.
August 26. Wednesday.--Judge E. F. Dickinson died at
Green Springs last night. He was the eldest son of Honorable
Rodolphus Dickinson of this town. He was well educated in
Catholic schools and colleges. He had a good head and a good
heart. I have rarely met a man better equipped intellectually.
He was unambitious and lacked energy. He inherited from his
mother French blood; had an appetite for liquor. No man
20 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
more kindly, wise, and useful in his office of probate judge. He
made no figure as a Member of Congress by reason of his habits.
But an able and a good man has gone!
August 27. Thursday. - Judge Dickinson was one of the su-
perior men. He was so devoid of ambition, of pretension, per-
haps we shall also think of energy, that he was sure to be under-
rated as a man of ability. He had a large, sound head, a warm,
manly heart, a valid judgment, and a charitable, friendly, and
generous disposition. He was well educated in the best sense
of the word. He was useful and reliable. He made a model
probate judge. He was a fit adviser and a ready and willing
helper of all who needed guardianship. He will be greatly
missed in this county and his professional brethren do well to
manifest and record their esteem and affection for him.
If any one shall suggest that he did not make all that was
possible of his powers, that he was the friend of everybody
else, the enemy to himself only, we can reply: "Let him who is
without personal weaknesses cast the first stone." He always
judged gently of others; let none but fraternal words be spoken
He is now safe in the care of the Supreme Power, the Su-
preme Wisdom, and the Supreme Love!
FREMONT, OHIO, August 28, 1891.
DEAR COMRADE:-Enclosed find five dollars for your pro-
posed banner. I have a rule not to send an affirmative response
to such appeals as yours. Excuse me for saying that, un-
wittingly no doubt, you have adopted a common method of
coercing public men. It is not a worthy way of promoting a
good cause. Let me advise you not to send such a letter to the
President nor to ex-President Cleveland, nor to any other pub-
lic man. Excuse this frankness, and reply.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
W. W. WITHINGTON.
CHARACTER OF JUDGE DICKINSON 21
August 29. Saturday.- I would amend Lowell's expressions
for Deity by beginning with the idea of eternity and father-
hood, so it would read: The Eternal Father, the Supreme
Power, the Supreme Wisdom, and the Supreme Love.
Our excellent pioneer meeting at the court-house today fore-
noon. I made a short talk, insisting that General William H.
Gibson, our matchless popular orator, was the equal of Patrick
Henry, was indeed the Patrick Henry of our day and genera-
tion, our forest-born Demosthenes. The crowd was large and
very happy. They appreciated to the full the eloquence, humor,
wit, and pathos of Gibson.
August 30. Sunday. -Rutherford returned this morning
from his Duluth trip via Cleveland. He is improved in health.
Found some unpleasant complications in our Duluth property,
but on the whole the situation is reasonably favorable. He is
glad to reach home and we are happy to have him with us.
August 31. Monday. - In the evening met at Keeler's Mary
McLelland Fitch, daughter of Cousin Belinda Elliot McLel-
land. She and her husband Rev. Fitch are Presbyterian Mis-
sionaries to China. There ten years. Now they have one year's
vacation at home with their children, five in number. She is
cheery, bright, and interesting; an excellent specimen of our
September 1. Tuesday.-- Walked to the depot with valise
without - before - breakfast. Cars to Columbus to attend
meeting of board of Ohio State University. Our buildings are
to be attended to, etc. Breakfast at Upper Sandusky. Read
Lowell's "Democracy" and other addresses. Very full of ideas
and good writing.--Afternoon and evening with board.
September 2. - Met City Civil Engineer Kinnear, and mem-
bers of City Board of Improvements. Had a good talk with
them about their damage-doing sewer. Dined with Dr. Fuller-
ton and his fine family. Evening with dear Laura who is much
September 3. Thursday. -John G. [Mitchell] Jr., took me
to the depot. With our brilliant young architect, Packard, as
22 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
seat-mate to Delaware; thence alone with Lowell to Cleveland.
Found all as usual at 891 Prospect. Called at 3 P. M. on An-
derson. He spoke well of Ryder for our manual training school,
with some buts however. . . We will wait.
September 4. Friday.--With Hayr and General Barnett,
visited the studio to see the groups of statuary for the Soldiers'
Monument at Cleveland. Not very attractive. Interesting as
having friends in the groups: General Sherman, Senator John
[Sherman], General Crook, General Cox, et al.--especially
Lucy and myself in separate groups on same monument. This
is an unusual incident in any commemorative structure-unique;
perhaps the only case of a monument perpetuating both hus-
band and wife. Neither specially well done considered as por-
traits. But Lucy is a fine, graceful, and dignified figure, with
a handsome face. All well except it is not an easily recognized
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, September 7, 1891.
MY DEAR SIR:- Whatever may be true in other countries, I
am satisfied that in the United States total abstinence from in-
toxicating drinks is the only safety. No doubt there are some
men in this country who can use liquor in moderation without
serious injury. But the greater number will suffer seriously by
the habit, and many will be ruined. No one can know before-
hand that he will remain a moderate drinker. For Americans
with their excitable temperament and its tendency to excess,
there is no half-way house between total abstinence and danger.
I have tried total abstinence. It has never interfered with, but
beyond all question, has always promoted my health and hap-
JOHN A. BRUCE, RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
September 8. Tuesday.- Had a meeting of the three elder
boys, Birch, Webb, and Rutherford, in the savings bank on our
TOTAL ABSTINENCE BEST 23
business affairs. Debts large and increasing. I have said yes
to appeals too often during the last ten years. The interest on
my debts now exceeds my income. But the real estate is worth
three hundred thousand dollars and in the long run it probably
increases in value faster than the debts. But the situation is
embarrassing and needs attention.
September 10. Thursday.--With my friend William Henry
Smith [who arrived last night from New York] and Walter F.
Sherman to Put-in-Bay to consider the Maumee Valley His-
torical Society. Will it survive or perish?
Had a most agreeable trip. Weather lovely, lake smooth, the
pioneers happy and cordial, and Cassius M. Clay, the veteran
fighter for the antislavery cause in Kentucky, venerable, in-
teresting, and unique. I made a "rattling" little speech as
president, and he made a rambling but entertaining talk. Visited
with Smith and Stevenson, of the Fish Commission of Mary-
land, Generals Force and Pope at the Sandusky Home in the
September 11. Friday.- Drove with William Henry Smith;
talked over old times. A most entertaining day. Smith wants
to leave his work with [the] Associated Press and take up a
"Life and Times of Clay," the "Hayes Administration," and
other historical and biographical topics. He thinks a man can-
not write well after he is sixty-five. He is now fifty-seven and
must begin now or forever give it up. I suggest the tedium of
life to a man who has always been a worker when he gives
up business, etc., etc.
September 12. Saturday.--Afternoon, drove with William
Henry Smith, Webb, and little Sherman to the west on Hayes
Avenue and around south home. A happy day going over old
times, Lucy, and other friends. Evening saw at Keeler's a fine
picture of our home in the magazine of Demorest.
September 14. Monday. - This is South Mountain day, Sun-
day, September 14, 1862. Twenty-nine years ago this morning
we marched up the old National Road. In the evening I was
hauled back in an ambulance to Middletown with a shattered
24 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
arm and bruised ribs, suffering pain enough but very happy.
We had gained the victory!
I go today with Fanny to the reunion of the Army of West
Virginia at Huntington.
September 19. Saturday. - This is Opequon, or Winchester,
day. The slough and the beginning of Sheridan's splendid vic-
tories in the Valley.
Fanny and I returned [last night] from the excellent reunion
of our old army at Huntsville [Huntington] very happy, but
very weary, about 11 :30 P. M.
[Going], at Delaware Monday was joined by George W. Col-
lier, a chaplain of the Thirty-fourth-Thirty-Sixth Ohio in the
war, and afterwards an army chaplain by my appointment. He
is able, interesting, an intense patriot in the war, and now, re-
tired from the army, an intense Republican.
We reached Ashland about sundown, having been ferried over
the Ohio, car and all, and reached Huntington about dark. We
took the committee by surprise and reached the Florentine Hotel
without meeting them. They soon reached us. A very attentive
and courteous committee, viz., Flodding, McIntosh, and Poor.
The two latter served with and under me. Mr. Matthews and
his son, the hotel people, were kind and efficient.
[On the] 15th, Tuesday, soon began to meet army friends,--
Duval, Enochs, Bottsford, Powell, Bukey, and others. The
mayor, a soldier and Republican, an undertaker, Mr. ----
took in his carriage Fanny, Chaplain Collier, and myself all over
the city and east over the Guyandotte through the town of that
name, a very delightful drive of two hours. We stopped at the
great auditorium of boards--well adapted for a large meeting.
Its portraits, flags, etc., etc. All portraits of the dead except
Rosecrans and myself! I talked to the men and women already
there and shook hands with many.
Afternoon, at the meeting, and again in the evening, a fine
attendance. Music, speaking, hand-shaking.
Wednesday, hosts came in. The day of the parade; hot, dusty,
crowds, enthusiasm. We rode in advance next after police and
band. Governor Fleming and staff next, etc., etc. A large
ARMY REUNION AT HUNTINGTON 25
number of Confederate soldiers, say, five hundred in line with
us! My best speech was after the procession reached the audi-
torium. I first introduced Governor Fleming. He made a short,
eloquent, and patriotic address.
In the evening our attentive committee placed seats close up
to the stand. No men standing between the audience and the
stand. They also added very good vocal music. All the music
was patriotic and American.
Thursday [was] the day of the industrial parade. Forenoon
the mayor took us to the new town of Central City. Afternoon
[the] parade. All through there were regimental reunions, bri-
gade, batteries; and when not on duty, the officers of the so-
ciety "re-uned" in General Powell's room.
The evening of parting we were all hoarse, weary, but con-
tented and happy. "Reposing after victory." The affair was
a great success.
September 20. Sunday.--Correspondence all day [yester-
day] with intervals of tree trimming [and] walks in the dear
old grove and the like.
Presiding Elder Barnes preached a partisan prohibition ser-
mon. We hear no more appeals to individual judgment and
conscience-no character building. Temperance is to be pro-
moted by law, by party action, and all the blame is laid upon
the saloon-keeper! The pulpit is losing its place; it is becoming
a merely partisan platform, and that too for the most inefficient
and imbecile party ever known in our politics. Anti-Masonry,
Know-nothingism, Woman's Rights, Farmers' party have car-
ried counties, congressional districts, and States, but Prohibi-
tion, after twenty-five years of activity, has done nothing, has
carried nothing, has been condemned by nineteen-twentieths of
the people, and yet our Methodist Episcopal Church seems to
be drifting from religion into partisan Prohibition. No wonder
there is difficulty in paying church expenses. We have done
better, far better, in our finances than ever before. Mr. Al-
britton has put soul into the work; but deadness, indifference,
and penuriousness are far too prevalent.
26 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, September 21, 1891.
MY DEAR FRIEND:-I have your letter of the 18th from
Asheville. It is my purpose to be in New York with Fanny the
7th and 8th. The 10th I am to be in Pittsburgh at a meeting
of the National Prison Association.
With your marvellous energy you need to realize the fact
you just begin to learn. Do not hesitate to obey the hint. Ac-
cept no new duty or work until you have slept on it--until
you have consulted your wife. How garrulous I am getting
with uncalled-for advice!
Ever faithfully your friend,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE J. L. M. CURRY.
September 23. Wednesday. - Speech - a few paragraphs,
correspondence, and work in the grove. How I enjoy such
work, what a relief, these melancholy days! My days of gloom
are 2Ist to 28th each month. Gradually they are memorial days;
but I do want the open, the open air, the lovely lights and
shadows of the grove, these lovely September days.
September 27. Sunday.- Nelly Cook is with us. A sweet,
kindly nature belongs to the Cooks. We counted up the de-
scendants of our grandfather and [grand]mother Cook and find
now living about one hundred and twenty. Of my grandfather
and [grand]mother Rutherford and Chloe Hayes, perhaps one
hundred and thirty are living.
October 2. Friday. - The speech for the Prison Congress is
done and 'sent to the printer. This, at noon today.
Very warm weather again. No such dust ever before seen
in Spiegel Grove; [due to] the drouth and the work on the
streets. We are paving with brick Buckland Avenue.
Dr. Reed came at about 5:30 P. M. He presents an argument
in favor of the Ohio Medical University as the Medical De-
partment of the Ohio State University. There is no such in-
stitution as the Ohio Medical University. It is all paper. A
PEABODY BOARD MEETING 27
few gentlemen have filed their charter, that is all. No property,
no organization, no students, --paper only. But the argument is,
all these will be furnished if our school is adopted!
Mary Breckinridge, daughter of General Joseph Breckinridge,
of the army, came during the evening. A fine cousin. Her
mother is daughter of Mrs. Dudley, a cousin of Lucy, a Scott.
SPIEGEL, October 4, 1891.
MY FRIEND:--I have had my Pittsburgh [Prison Congress]
talk printed at the Journal office here. It is a plain common-
place affair but touches the sore spots. You can get all you
want of the Journal.
Sixty-nine today! In my seventieth year! How it sounds.
But I am content.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
The Associated Press, New York.
October 5. Monday.--With Fanny en route to New York
to attend Peabody Education board meeting.
[New York], October 7. Wednesday. - Peabody meeting;
banquet. Mr. Winthrop absent. After banquet, at Io P. M.,
with Companions Captain L. A. Beardslee and Thomas H. Hub-
bard, over to Delmonico's with Fanny. Delivered my speech to
three hundred or more successfully. Greeted warmly.
October 8. - Met at my room Jesup, Gilman, and Dr. Curry.
A good meeting [of] Slater education people.
October 9. Friday. - To Pittsburgh. On train met Mrs.
Johnson, Mrs. Russell, and Mrs. Carey of Massachusets, our
prison reform people. Were met with a carriage by Mr. George
A. Kelly, Captain E. S. Wright, etc., and escorted to pleasant
quarters in the Monongahela House. So cordial a reception does
the soul good.
28 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
October 10. - Drove with Mayor Gourley to East Pittsburgh.
Evening a fine reception at Carnegie Hall in Allegheny City.
The mayor and General McClellan welcomed us. My address
went off well.
October 11. Sunday.-- [Heard] Rev. Dr. Purves [at the]
First Presbyterian Church this forenoon; [at] the Western
Penitentiary, Captain Wright, "my double," in the afternoon;
and heard the eloquent, witty, and eccentric Rev. T. K. Beecher
in Duquesne Theatre in the evening. True, deep, pathetic. He
said: "No man was ever in a tighter [place] than you. But
I watched you, I prayed for you, and you never made a mis-
take. I shall call you my brother." This with earnest solemnity
and pathos and his eyes full of tears as I congratulated him on
his grand discourse.
October 12. Monday.--Opened the Prison Congress.
Papers good. Wayland and Mrs. Homans there. He read a
solid paper on children's treatment; duty of the State.
October 13 and 14. --Well spent days. Too much reading of
formal papers, too little oral discussion, but a good time.
October 15. Thursday.- [Wednesday] evening a good meet-
ing. Was compelled to leave at 9:30 P. M. without giving my
summing up, but just as well.
Home about 9 A. M. Adda low and sinking.
The trees are turning beautifully, bitten with the severe frost.
Spiegel--home--so quiet and so dear to my heart. Fanny
a treasure. She is so appreciated by the good people of the
National Prison Association.
October 16. Friday.--Adda died at 3 P. M. yesterday. She
had been nearly unconscious several days. A sweet, energetic,
efficient woman of principle, culture, and affection. The fourth
death in this house. The first was Mrs. Valette, then [our
baby] Manning Force, then the darling, now Adda.
October 17. Saturday.--I hear today of the death of my
old friend Judge Johnston, a lawyer unsurpassed before a jury.
A master of English, pure and undefiled, with a knowledge of
DEATH OF JUDGE JOHNSTON 29
human nature rarely equalled. Aged eighty-four. Not a suc-
cessful man, either in attaining place or accomplishing things
for the public; acquired a competency. [Dowered] with wit,
logic, eloquence, shrewdness.
SPIEGEL, October 19, 1891.
DEAR AUNTY AUSTIN:-We laid Addie to rest yesterday
afternoon in a driving rain-storm. A great many turned out.
She was well remembered in a most favorable way here..
We are now getting lonely enough; only Laura left and
she goes tomorrow or next day. We have had more than usual
in the house ever since poor Addie came. I hope you will be
well enough to come this week. If not send Mattie. When this
storm is over we shall have a glory of colors in the grove, never
surpassed. You will enjoy nature's triumphs here.
I am to be at home for more than two weeks at least. Then
I go South for a fortnight with Dr. [Curry] of the Slater Fund
on affairs of that trust. I could not attend the brilliant Loyal
Legion affair in Philadelphia, but was chosen for another term.
Hoping for your restored health and to see you and Mattie
before the week ends, and with regards to her and Mrs. Hunt-
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. L. AUSTIN,
October 20. Tuesday. - Mr. Cannon, (Honorable Joseph
G.), of Danville, Illinois, came at II A. M. to make a Repub-
lican speech. I brought him home from depot. Dinner with
guests, Colonel Wm. E. Haynes, our Congressman, [and others].
A good company. Afternoon, drove to Republican headquarters;
hand-shaking half an hour. . . . An agreeable man. Talks
too low in tones for the dull ears. In the opera house a few
minutes. A straightforward speaker--not quite voice enough.
More force, life, and noise would help. Being weary went home.
30 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
October 23. Friday.--Evening read to finis the "Diary of
a Diplomat," by Mrs. Gordon. Mrs. Gordon, says:-"Age is
tragic. It means, get out of the way -make way for the young.
It means the retired list, respectability, and inanition."--"Sus-
pended animation," said Galloway of the office of lieutenant-
governor [and of] the President of the Senate.
My old friend, Judge Johnston, outlived his contemporaries.
His talk was of Charles Hammond, of Benjamin Tappan, of
John C. Wright, Philip Doddridge, Thomas Ewing, Henry Stan-
berry, and the other giants of the bar whose example was the
spur to his young ambition. He was a man of few books, but
the few he loved well - the great books, and he had them at
his tongue's end. The Bible, "Pilgrim's Progress," "Paradise
Lost," and especially Shakespeare were his favorites. He was
fond of young men. Coming to Cincinnati more than forty
years ago, I soon became fond of him, and learned to prize and
enjoy his teaching. During two winters, one or two evenings
a week, at his house with other young men, Shakespeare was
read carefully under his shrewd and wise criticism. His argu-
ments before courts and juries were prepared in the most pains-
taking way. He used to say that no man was fit to be an ad-
vocate who could not by his illustrations and treatment make
the dryest question interesting to the average citizen.
October 26. Monday. - In the evening Miss Mattie Avery
came. Read Moncure D. Conway's article in the Monist on
the "Right of Evolution." It is a bright statement of the benefit
of peaceful remedies for evils as contrasted with the folly of
force, of evolution as compared with revolution. It is un-
friendly to religion-of infidel leaning.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, October 26, 1891.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--Nothing but engagements of the most
imperative nature would keep me from the bar meeting in mem-
ory of Judge Johnston. He was a friend I greatly valued, and
I would gladly unite with others in a tribute to his wonderful
gifts, to his eminence as a lawyer, and to his singular originality
and rare powers as an orator. It would be a great pleasure also
CHARACTER OF JUDGE JOHNSTON 31
to hear such men as Mr. Groesbeck and Mr. Perry speak of
Judge Johnston. It is simply impossible, however, for me to
be present. Sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
GENERAL T. T. HEATH,
October 27. Tuesday.--At 4 P. M. the cannon woke the
echoes. McKinley, en route for meeting at Toledo, spoke ten
minutes at the Wheeling Railroad depot with good voice to a
large meeting hastily gathered. The swing is with him.
October 28. Wednesday.-In Captain John G. Bourke's
new book, "On the Border with Crook," under date of June
23, 1876, page 321, he tells how Lieutenant Schuyler, Fifth
Cavalry, made the trip out to Crook from Fort Fetterman, in
four days to Crook's command, with two couriers who brought
the mail with news; among other facts of interest: - "That
Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, had been nominated by the Re-
publicans for the Presidency. General Hayes had commanded
a brigade under Crook in the Army of West Virginia during
the War of the Rebellion. Crook spoke of his former sub-
ordinate in the warmest and most affectionate manner, in-
stancing several battles in which Hayes had displayed ex-
ceptional courage, and proved himself to be, to use Crook's
words, 'as brave a man as ever wore a shoulder-strap.'"
I very early in my political career learned to estimate at its
true value the censure, abuse, and ridicule which follow all
men who are prominent in public life. It is so common, so
destitute of truth, and so meaningless--so far from the true
opinions and feelings of those who utter it--that it ought not
to seriously affect those upon whom it is poured out. This I
saw and appreciated, and I soon found philosophy enough in
my composition in a great measure to disregard it. Indeed, I
suppose few public men ever regard such abuse with less feel-
ing than I do. At the same time, I must confess that flattery,
good words from the right quarter, "Aaron's beard," as Lucy
habitually called it, is as sweet to me as to others. Epecially is
32 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
this so if I fancy it is deserved, is warranted by truth; and if
it comes from a man of so few words, so ungushing, as Crook
Our States are not given [to] political party strife and divi-
sions on state topics. The political parties in almost all of the
States are divided on national issues. This has some advantages.
The most important interests are confided to state officials, law-
makers and executive officers. Education, crime, internal im-
provements, the dependent classes, viz., the poor, the blind, the
deaf and dumb, the imbecile, the aged, the widows, the orphans,
agriculture, forestry, geology, mining, etc., etc., all depend
largely, if not exclusively, on the State. They can be, as they
ought to be, managed independent of party.
October 29. Thursday. - Drove to the station at about ten
Met General Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut. Drove [him]
around the town, and lunched with him. In the evening at the
opera house heard General Hawley to a good audience make
a solid, sensible, and effective speech. He told two matters -
Butler's worthlessness as a soldier, and the assertion of treach-
ery in furnishing, or allowing to be furnished, provisions and
supplies to the enemy.
Fitz-John Porter wrote a letter to Henderson, of North Caro-
lina, thanking him for his vote, also saying, "I was against you
in arms but with you in sentiment," or words to that effect.
It fell into the hands of Henderson, of Illinois, and so became
public. Is this so?
October 30. Friday.- General Hawley wrote a letter when
Butler was running for governor, opposing him because of his
crude and wild notions on currency. Butler made a speech [in
which he said:] "And Hawley--Joe Hawley--he was rebuked
for failure in duty as a soldier. Hence his bad temper towards
me," or words to that effect. A clerk of Hawley's heard it.
General Hawley was promptly informed of it by telegraph. He
instantly sent word to his clerk [to] let the president of the
meeting say that: "Whoever says I was rebuked or found fault
with ever by anybody for my conduct as a soldier, is a liar and
a blackguard." The chairman of the meeting refused, of course,
McKINLEY ELECTED GOVERNOR 33
to read the dispatch to the meeting. General Hawley told his
clerk to read it to Butler and to put it in the Associated Press
[despatch]. It was done. "I have never spoke to Butler since.
[General Hawley said]. I was under him in the Army of the
James. He was of no account."
General Hawley left in 7:30 train this morning after, to us,
a most agreeable visit.
November 3, 1891. Tuesday. -Voted the blanket ticket at 7
or earlier. We [Rutherford and I] start South today.
November 21. Saturday. - With Laura returned last evening
via Columbus and Toledo.
At Cincinnati the afternoon of the third, visited the Herrons,
with whom we dined, also Will Taft. Left for the South, be-
fore getting any returns. The next morning at Knoxville, news
of McKinley's election in the papers. Joined at Asheville by
our capital friend and companion, Dr. Curry. A poor dinner
at the hotel in Asheville near the station, but with a fierce ap-
petite. Joined on the way to Columbia by an intelligent and
agreeable lawyer, W. H. Lyles, a friend of the education of the
negro, living in Columbia. Reached Columbia late at night. A
Thursday (5th), at Columbia, visited schools with Mayor
McMaster and others. The reception at Mr. Tindal's was very
enjoyable. Ladies and gentlemen, young and old, were cordial
and friendly, agreeable and courteous. A pleasant feature:
Young ladies in the dining-room were waiters, with white caps
and white robe. Talked with them and recognized them after-
wards in the parlors without the garb of waiters, beautiful and
At Orangeburg next day - Claflin University. Met there ex-
Congressman Dibble (a distant cousin), who was very courteous;
also the president of Claflin University - the fine institution-
L. W. Dunton D. D.
Saturday, [at] Augusta, Georgia. A most instructive and
interesting day, at the exposition, the schools, the South Carolina
side of the river, Hamburg, the new suburb, the water power.
[The] 8th, Sunday. Atlanta. Reached Kimball House about
3 H. D.
34 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
daylight. [Attended] church, Southern Methodist Episcopal
The president of Emory College preached on Sabbath observ-
ance. Visited the schools. Evening, with Dr. Curry and Ruth-
erford, called on Honorable H. W. Hilliard. With Governor
Colquitt, [on the] 9th, Monday, [visited] Clark University, At-
lanta, and Spellman.
[The] 10th, Tuesday [at] Montgomery, Alabama. Visited
schools [and] State Fair. Met Honorable [Mr.] Herbert,
Member of Congress. Very kind. Spoke to a great crowd at
fair. Saw a trotting race. My horse won. Called at [the]
Speaking daily a number of times, Dr. Curry and I de-
murred on one occasion. But the school president said with
urgency: "It would be a benediction, an inspiration, an epoch,
in the lives of the--, etc." Of course we yielded.
[The] 11th, Wednesday, reached New Orleans about 9 A. M.
Met Miss Hyatt of Moss Point and her sister on the train.
Miss Mary Miller and her father in the hotel, St. Charles. Also
General McMillan, General Badger, et al. The superintendent
of schools with us, Mr.
St. Charles a fine residence street. The colored schools all
well enough. The city voted almost three-fourths for the octo-
pus, the lottery--the Standard Oil of New Orleans!
[The] 12th, Thursday, [at] Jackson, Mississippi. The fine
school under Mr. Woodworth at Tougaloo. Encouraging, very.
[The] 13th, Friday. Memphis. The colored school visited.
Evening with Mr. Moore, Member of Congress. Most agree-
[The] 14th, Saturday, A. M., reached Nashville--Maxwell
House. Homelike. Visited endowed institutions and public
schools. Evening Round Table Club.
Sunday, heard Prof. and Bishop Quintard.
Monday. The Belle-Meade farm, General William H. Jack-
son, with Eakin and Robertson.
Reached Cincinnati Tuesday morning. Had breakfast with
Mrs. Herron; dinner also. Afternoon to Columbus. - Tea with
[On the] 18th, Wednesday, [at the] meeting of trustees of
VISIT TO SOUTHERN SCHOOLS 35
the Ohio State University. Halls named. One, Orton; one,
Hayes. Pleased that it was done in my absence on motion of
Dr. Schueller, Democrat, (present four Democrats, two Repub-
licans), by unanimous vote.
November 23. Monday. - Laura and I read Tennyson's last
volume, "Locksley Hall Sixty Years After"; The "Story of
My Life" by B. W. Childlaw; and Herbert.
Childlaw at ten years of age, 1821, came up the lake to Lower
Sandusky [Fremont] in The Walk in the Water; thence by ox
team (from Chillicothe for goods) to Delaware.
Fanny and Scott returned last night. They had a fine visit
to New York and Washington. At Washington they met the
President, Mrs. Harrison, Mrs. McKee, and others. Were de-
lighted with the improved White House and with the portrait
of their mother; also of their father.
November 24. Tuesday. - Correspondence, and read auto-
biography of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, presented to me by
my nephew-in-law, Edward B. Wall.
November 25. Wednesday. - A calamity last night. Between
seven and eight last evening the Carbon Works were burned.
Loss total. This is serious. The laborers (one hundred and
fifty) out of work in the beginning of winter. The town will
probably lose the works; not likely to be rebuilt. And Webb
is interested--loses possibly ten thousand dollars, beyond the
insurance. Loss perhaps two hundred thousand dollars, and in-
surance probably one hundred thousand dollars.
November 26. Thursday. - Thanksgiving. Fanny and Mary
with me attended the union service at the Presbyterian church.
Rev. Albritton preached a strong sermon, hopeful; alluded in
high terms to Lucy. Brought home Mrs. Miller and Mrs.
Edward Pease and Bessie. A fine dinner. All but Scott present
with us. Little Webb stood alone. A very happy Thanksgiving.
In the evening, at the G. A. R. union meeting of ladies of
the Relief Corps and of the comrades, I made a speech about
my trip South; alluded to all favorable things; spoke of bus-
iness and education. Omitted to speak of Fisk negroes making
36 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
telescopes, and Clark [negro students] making wagons and car-
riages. -A good time after [the] speaking, singing army songs.
November 27. Friday.- I have received a host of agreeable
notices of my Southern tour; only one ill-natured comment.
The interview of Dr. Curry pleased me especially. The
Evening Post and the Troy Press in the North and all of the
Southern notices were gratifying.
I must make general education, its value, necessity, im-
portance, its influence on the welfare of nations and individuals,
more and more my topic.
November 29. Sunday. - I am reading the book of my friend
H. C. Trumbull on "Friendship." Love, he says, is a harmony
relation. Love of parent and child, husband and wife, is with
a sense of possession. Friendship, he exalts above love. Not
so. Love is peculiar in this: It is satisfied with making another
happy. That makes the lover happy--never so happy as when
giving happiness to the beloved. Unselfish therefore?
A coincidence: At church with Rutherford and Fanny. Mr.
Albritton preached on friendship. He opened with the same
quotation from Cicero with which Trumbull begins.
I am asked to write on prison reform for the Forum with
liberal offers of compensation. It seems to me that Mr. Foster
has sufficiently answered the article of Mr. Andrews in a former
November 30. Monday. - Mr. Andrews and Mr. Foster have
discussed the crime question in late numbers of the Forum.
The Forum holds that reformatory measures have greatly in-
creased crime. Mr. Foster replies, yes, if arrests and convic-
tions are the test. But an enormous part of these are for of-
fenses not regarded fifty years ago. He cites, as chief in this
list, drunkenness and misdemeanors connected with liquor sell-
ing. Let me give another test. The improved condition, espe-
cially in large cities, with respect to good order, public drunken-
ness, fighting, riots, and the like. New York with over a mil-
lion and a half of people has less public disorder by a great
deal than it had when it was one-fifth as large. This is secured
FRIENDSHIP AND LOVE 37
by a host of arrests and convictions [for misdemeanors] which
were unknown in 1840.
December 1. Tuesday. --I received a long protest and argu-
ment from one of the junior members of the Loyal Legion
against the change of badge for the sons of members by service.
I reply today.
Personal and private.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, December 1, 1891.
MY DEAR SIR AND COMPANION:- Absence from home has
prevented an earlier reply to your favor of the 17th [of] No-
My individual feelings and convictions on the question you
argue are with you. If opportunity offers in the proper place,
it will afford me pleasure so to speak and vote. I would have
one faith, one law, one flag, ONE badge. Even on this corner-
stone idea, however, let us be brotherly. No offense, nothing
hostile, was meant. My three sons, members of the order,
showed signs of heat. I rebuked them. The man who has
been carried off the field in a bloody blanket naturally feels
that his case is of higher tone than that of his boy who was
playing baseball at college. If he is mistaken, do not get angry
with him. "Put yourself in his place." Be charitable. Keep
cool. "Time makes all things even."
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
ELLIOT G. BARROWS,
December 4. Friday. --To Columbus. Afternoon visited the
university with President Scott, Captain Cope, and Professor
Mendenhall; and [consulted] Judge Harrison on the Page will.
December 5. Saturday. - To Circleville on the will. Found
Mrs. Page and Isabel very cordial at the American House. They
both wished earnestly to carry out Mr. Page's wishes and
promptly signed the instrument prepared by Judge Harrison.
38 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
This, the first large gift to the Ohio State University, is im-
December 7. Monday. - Afternoon, at official board meeting
[of the church]. Our pastor scolded the members of the board
for not attending prayer-meetings, etc. In a quiet way, good-
naturedly, I rebuked the pastor for this habit of his. All went
off pleasantly. The members spoke of my intervention as timely.
I hope so. Scolding does no good--neither from pulpit nor
December 9. Wednesday.-Cleveland-at 891 Prospect St.-
guest of Mrs. Austin. Yesterday attended the funeral of Judge
Ranney in Cleveland. I dispatched H. C. Ranney: "Judge
Ranney was a great man, and a wise and noble patriot.." Judge
Ranney was more. He was a man of warm, friendly, generous
disposition and character. He was loved by all who knew him
well, and best by those who knew him best.
December 10. Thursday.--Only a few Presidents have had
the felicity to see their party stronger at the close of their terms
than it was at the beginning. Only a few have left their country
more prosperous than they found it. Results determine. The
tree is known by its fruit. "It is a joy to do good things. There
is joy in bragging about them," said General Kilpatrick and he
illustrated the doctrine on a hundred platforms.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, December 10, 1891.
MY DEAR DOCTOR: - The 22d - one week from next Tues-
day -at Baltimore, would suit me. I can leave home Monday,
reach the hotel you name in Baltimore at about noon Tuesday,
and be home again by Christmas Eve. How will this do? Of
course, if our business requires it, I will not insist upon leaving
for home on account of Christmas. Christmas ought to be
where duty is.
With best wishes to Mrs. Curry.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
DR. J. L. M. CURRY.
McKINLEY PREDICTED PRESIDENT 39
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, December 14, 1891.
MY DEAR COLONEL:- Nothing to say in special. Busy as
ever--busier. Shoeing on to the end! The trip South gratified
me. The corner seems to be turned. Reacation, "sober second
thought," seems to be on my side.
Katherine, the darling! was not she coming? Tell her, of
course, one of her homes is at Spiegel. All as they were, ex-
cept [that] Scott seems about to swarm away. He is done with
the bank; is now in Duluth. May go there, or to Chicago, or
East, or to a file factory in Anderson, Indiana. All under con-
The Sherman contest is warm; chances even, inclining to
Sherman. McKinley is still rising; not for 1892, but for some-
time; 1892 is under the cloud which predicts, in the even bal-
ance of present parties, "No victory for the party loaded down
with an Administration." Hence, 1896 is the first chance, and
Heaven may come before that date.
Webb is well; will tell him to write you.
COLONEL HENRY C. CORBIN. RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
December 15. Tuesday.--The Rawson Post celebration of
the battle of Nashville was a great success as to numbers, good
feeling, etc. Mammoth Hall was filled and the audience re-
mained until I I o'clock. Colonel Wildman, the only speaker
from abroad, made a good talk. The best comrade talk was by
Keys, our negro color-bearer. My talk, especially the part in
favor of American music and tunes, was well received.
FREMONT, OHIO, December 19, 1891.
MY DEAR FRIEND:- I send you enclosed documents which
explain themselves. My wish is to do what is sensible and
best.* I will be at the Fifth Avenue Hotel next Tuesday on
*Enclosed was a letter from John H. James, of Urbana, Ohio, with
a letter from the Russian Charge d'Affaires. The latter reported famine
condition in twelve provinces of Russia affecting twenty million people.
Major James asked Mr. Hayes to urge some New York paper to
appeal for contributions to aid the sufferers.
40 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Slater education business, and will stay two or three days
Please return me the correspondence in case nothing can be
done. My name and that of Major James may be kept out of
the papers-- mine, surely.
Please let me hear from you, or see you in New York.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
SPIEGEL GROVE, December 20, 1891.
MY DEAR GENERAL:--I am very glad you are to have a rest.
A little outing will do you a world of good. I would come down
and stay a night with you, but am to leave for New York to-
morrow to be gone a week or ten days on Slater education
work. I send you a note to President Harrison, a good man,
and a good President, but with an unfortunate lack of tact and
good-natured manners. His coldness and indifference when
meeting strangers is sometimes offensive. A friend of his about
to introduce to him some nice people- ladies and gentlemen -
said to them, "Don't think he means to insult you--it is his
way!" I never happened to notice an extreme case of this
sort--but, etc., etc.
Horton is always welcome at Spiegel. Say so to him.
Scott is trying his wings. He left the home nest a few
weeks ago; has spent time in Columbus, New York, Chicago,
and Duluth. He likes Duluth best of all; is there now, and is
inclined to settle there. Probably a temporary craze.
Present my respectful compliments to Mrs. Horton. With
kindest regards to your wife.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
P. S.--I send a note to General Breckinridge of the army.
One of the best men in the world. The one loyal man of his
name--intimate with the President--a distant relation of the
President and also of Mrs. Hayes. With the heart of the
latter. - H.
GENERAL M. F. FORCE,
PRESIDENT HARRISON'S COLDNESS 41
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, December 19, 1891.
MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT:-Permit me to introduce to you
my valued friend, General Manning F. Force. He is an ex-
cellent gentleman, soldier, and scholar who wants nothing for
himself nor for anybody else. He is the governor of the Sol-
diers' Home at Sandusky.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
December 20. Sunday.--At church this morning. Sermon
fervid and sensible on the text, "Beginning at Jerusalem."
Queer. Where are now the Jews who became Christians? What
is left in and around Jerusalem of the religion preached there
by the Apostles? What Christianity is there now?
I go to New York tomorrow to meet with the committee on
education of the Slater Education Fund, to hear the report of
the visit of Dr. Curry and myself to the institutions we aid in
the South, and to take action thereon.
December 29. Tuesday.-- Home again in twenty hours
from Brattleboro, Vermont. Reached New York, Fifth Avenue
Hotel, Tuesday (22nd) morning. Was soon at home in parlor
and room, northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and Twenty-fourth
[Street], parlor floor. Met divers acquaintances, Speaker Reed,
Senator Palmer, Senator Hiscock, et al. Dr. Curry arrived
about 3 P. M. and we soon entered upon our duties without
waiting for others. Soon joined by Mr. Jesup and Mr. Dodge
and Mr. John A. Stewart. A good profitable meeting. Our verbal
report seemed very satisfactory to all. To meet a day or two
before the April meeting of the board to prepare business and
hear from Dr. Curry a written report.
My friend William Henry Smith called soon after my ar-
rival. We had a long visit together before the arrival of Dr.
Curry. He will soon retire from the Associated Press and give
his life to literary work. He may take up the Hayes Adminis-
tration and possibly Mrs. Hayes.
42 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
[The] 23rd, Wednesday, reached Brattleboro about 3 P. M.
Called at the wholesale store of young Deweese DeWitt. At
6:20 P. M. on the narrow gauge to Newfane. Found my way
to the hotel at the jail! Met Mr. Underwood, the landlord,
Mr. Kilbourn, the habitual winter guest, and Charlotte and
Thursday, rain continuous. A happy day.-Hoped to see
Smith (Reverend) in the evening and go with him to his Sunday
school Christmas. Bad weather probably prevented. Told
war stories and other (crimes yarns) to Frank, Charlotte, and
[The] 25th, Friday, a gloomy Christmas but passed with
enjoyment enough. A good Vermont dinner. Afternoon with
Charlotte and Mr. Milam Davidson, to Brattleboro. Stopped
at the excellent village hotel, the Brooks House, with Charlotte.
Called on John, his wife and daughter (a little two-year old)
on the hill south of the brook. Also on Mrs. Deweese DeWitt,
a handsome young wife, cheery and bright.
Saturday, still raining, drove with Charlotte up the avenue
to West Brattleboro and called on Sophia Elliot Smith. Took
her a bucket of Christmas doings bought at Deweese Dewitt's.
Drove past the old Hayes homestead, first visited with Mother
and Sister Fanny in 1834 in June. A lovely visit it was, but
all I then met and recall, are gone-gone long ago. Grand-
parents, Uncle Russell, Aunt Rhoda, or Martha, Uncle and
Aunt William R. Hayes, Uncle Birchard, Mother, and Fanny,
the dear sister. I feel doubly alone as I recall these darling
Sunday (27th) at church. Heard in the Congregational
church a good wholesome sermon by --, of Grand Rapids, on
the text, "And the second is like unto it, love thy neighbor as
theyself." All churches neglect this second "like"--equal in
duty, importance, etc., etc. All creeds give their chief attention
to the first, and almost totally neglect the "like" duty and work.
In the evening called on Mr. and Mrs. James Tyler (now
judge and an ex-Member of Congress). Met there Dr. Draper,
of the asylum
VISIT TO ANCESTRAL HOME 43
[The] 28th, Monday, bade farewell to the old home, to Char-
lotte and Deweese Dewitt and via Springfield to the great fast
train from Boston to Chicago. Reached home 7 A. M.-in
twenty hours from Brattleboro.
My father and mother in 1817 were forty-nine days on the
road with their emigrant wagons to Ohio. More than two days
for each hour that I spent in the same journey.
SPIEGEL, December 29, 1891.
MY DEAR AUNTY DAVIS:-After spending a few days on
educational concerns in New York and Christmas at the old
Vermont home of my parents, I am this morning again in our
home, looking over heaps of letters, and find your precious
words written on the first anniversary of your great loss! Yes,
yes, you are altogether wise. The groups will be no longer
two; after a few more days our group will join theirs. We
may well choke down the swelling hearts for the brief remnant
here. I find work and duty the best restorative. You do also,
I am sure. We cannot call them back -nor would we.
Ever heartily and sincerely, yours,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. ELIZA G. DAVIS,
December 31. Thursday.- I find on my table a painful let-
ter from my old orderly, steward in the White House, comrade
and friend [William T. Crump]. He is an invalid, no doubt
poor, with a pension of course, but not even with his wants. I
sent him a New Year's gift of twenty-five dollars. I wish I
could do more. My recent gifts to needy relatives and friends
are far beyond my means.
January 1, 1892. Friday. - [Made several calls.] Found
General Buckland and Mrs. Buckland cheerful and pleasant.
He is weaker. Will be eighty the 22d of this month. Dr.
Stilwell will be seventy-seven this month.
44 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
The whole of the Bristols (Mr. and Mrs. Bristol, Mr. and
Mrs. Thraves, and Lucy), also Lucy Keeler, dined with us.
I, with Rutherford, teaed at Bristol's. A happy New Year
Day. Read after dinner aloud to Lucy Keeler one of Howells'
farces, "The Albany Depot."--(Get "All Sorts and Conditions
January 3, 1892. Sunday.-Presiding Elder Barnes preached
on the resurrection. He presented the orthodox view quite ably.
The last time he preached here he gave us his partisan view of
prohibition. Partisanship should be kept out of the pulpit. It
blinds all minds who entertain it. It makes white black and
black white. It makes saints of sinners and sinners of saints.
If you are right, all your hearers think you are wrong, and hate
you and your religion. You do no good, but harm and harm
only, when you preach partisan principles. Keep out of it. It
is a bad practice. The blindest of partisans are preachers. All
politicians expect and find more candor, fairness, and truth in
politicians than in partisan preachers. They are not replied to -
no chance to reply to them. How mean it is to misrepresent
a man when he has no chance to reply! The balance wheel of
free institutions is free discussion. The pulpit allows no free
January 4. Monday. P. M.--With Fanny, Mrs. Bristol,
Mrs. Dorr, and Lucy Keeler in the sleigh went down our new
brick pavement on Buckland Avenue, to Arch Street; thence
out the pike two miles west and to Spiegel back through Front
Street. The first ride of the sort this winter.
Evening at church in the week of prayer and the quarterly
conference. Voted for revival services on my motion.
SPIEGEL GROVE, January 4, 1892.
MY DEAR GUY:- My readiness to say yes to importunate de-
mands on my time has brought its due penalty. The burden
of duties on me the last year has been too great. Relatives and
friends have been neglected. Worn to dullness with labor for
other men's causes, I have postponed to a lighter mood my let-
PARTISANSHIP IN THE PULPIT 45
ters to friends and loved ones. You ought not so easily to
have assumed that I was offended. There can be no offense
between us. But I have been wrong. The urgent multitude
had no right to take my time away from old friends. I will
cut off these outside people more resolutely.
As to coming to Texas: I can see no immediate prospect of
finding time for vacation. I have had none for more than five
years. My hope has been to connect it [a visit to Texas] with
some educational duty arising out of the Peabody and John F.
Slater Education Funds. My recent trip in that interest in
seven of the Cotton States, while most laborious, was full of
gratification and interest. Indeed my semipublic work since
leaving Washington has been of great value to me, even if of
small public account. Especially since my precious wife left me,
I have found in occupation my best refuge.
Of course, if I could visit Texas, you and yours and your
friends would be the persons I would wish to be with. I recall
always the dear home on the Brazos with warmest feelings, and
Hallie Jack is the bright particular star in that sky.
On Christmas day I was travelling from the home of my
mother's people in Vermont (Newfane) to the home of my
father in Brattleboro, and spent a little time in each place. You
are not alone among my friends who were not remembered.
Laura Platt Mitchell, General Force, and Mrs. Herron all re-
proach me. And I must change. I have been putting the
question to myself in this way: "Friends know how it is and
will excuse me; but with others, promptness and punctuality
Yes we are old fellows now. I was born October 4, 1822.
Here is 1892. In my seventieth year! My health is good. My
family are all well. My two grandsons are a perpetual joy to
The stream of abuse that flowed around me some years ago
has run its course. Now the pendulum swings to the other ex-
treme. The cutting from New York Times of 23rd last month
shows what I am doing.
Now Guy, be patient with me. I confess my error. I am
46 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
driven by duties (so called), and in my (alone) condition it is
best for me to be in this bondage.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE GUY M. BRYAN.
January 5. Tuesday. - Yesterday received a letter from Guy
M. Bryan, my old college friend and classmate, of Texas - Quin-
tana, Brazoria County. He feels hurt because I have not re-
plied to his letters. I am in fault. He is perhaps oversensitive,
but knowing this I ought to have written promptly. He is noble
and affectionate. I am too careful of strangers' feelings at the
expense of tried friends. Acting on the notion that old friends
will excuse me of course, I am not so thoughtful sometimes as
I will try to be in future.
An abundance of friendly comment comes to me these days.
The stream of abuse has gone by. The reaction is coming.
The pendulum seems to swing to the other extreme. Lucy was
more hurt by calumny than I ever was. She cared no more
for praise- perhaps less- than I do, but slander gave her far
more pain. I was confident always that in ten years or more
the judgment of our acts and character would be more friendly.
I would willingly hurt the feelings of no one. But once in
a great while I lose my pleasant smile and kindly voice. This
hurts me. Monday a man came with an absurd request and in
an unfortunate manner presented it. I was cold and probably
wounded him. It gave me a disagreeable feeling for hours
afterwards. More careful in future.
General Armstrong, of the Hampton School for negro educa-
tion, still lies in his bed, stricken with paralysis. I have just
written as follows to Rev. E. E. Hale D. D.
SPIEGEL, FREMONT, OHIO, January 5, 1892.
MY DEAR MR. HALE: - Some friend has sent me the Chris-
tian Register containing an account of the meeting in Boston in
the interest of General Armstrong's work at Hampton. So far
GROWING PUBLIC ESTEEM 47
as I can judge General Armstrong stands next to Lincoln in ef-
fective work for the negro. His work, like Lincoln's, is for
his whole country also, and for all mankind. It hits the nail on
the head. It solves the whole negro problem.
I wish I could do more. You may put me down for one of
the new scholarships.
I have been on the point of writing to General Armstrong to
express my sympathy with him. Please assure him that the
hearts of all who believe in the good cause to which he has given
his life are with him -their beloved leader and chief.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
REV. E. E. HALE D. D.,
January 6. Wednesday.--We may say the same thing of
preaching and dancing. There is preaching that is helpful and
dancing that is helpful; there is preaching that is sinful and
dancing that is sinful. So I think.
January 7. Tuesday.--Immediately on rising, I asked by
telephone the result of the Republican caucus at Columbus for
the Senatorship. The telephone operator tells me "Sherman was
elected." This is very welcome. Sherman and I have been, since
his election in 1872 especially, warm political and personal
friends. He is our best equipped statesman. This will wind up
his public life probably, and with due honor. I have no prejudices
against his competitor. But he is sensational, sarcastic, brilliant,
but unwise and unsafe. His methods are those of the boss and
machine system. I have no particulars of the proceedings of the
caucus. My hope is that the majority is so decided as to fix
condemnation on machine politics in Ohio.
The vote is fifty-three for Sherman, thirty-eight for Foraker.
This is not so large as I hoped, but sufficient.
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