VISIT TO BERMUDA -- THE MANY COURTESIES RECEIVED
--RELIGIOUS CONVICTIONS--PRESIDES AT FIRST MO-
HONK NEGRO CONFERENCE -- SPEAKS AT OTTAWA,
KANSAS -- PIONEER MEETING AT DELAWARE -- IN-
TEREST IN WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY -- DEATH
OF GENERAL NOYES -- APRIL-OCTOBER, 1890
APRIL 17, 1890. Thursday. -- To New York [from Phila-
delphia] with Fanny, Webb, and Rutherford. . . . At
3 P. M. bells sounded and steamer [Trinidad] off! Met two
Loyal Legion [men], Colonel Cooper and Lieutenant Beardsley,
both of New York Commandery. Introduced to Lewis, business
manager of Springfield Republican and Mr.----. Captain Frazier
is a plain, blunt, agreeable model of a sailor, native of Nova Sco-
tia. Thirty passengers--all at dinner at 6 P. M. A noble view
of New York harbor, "Liberty," etc., as we sailed away. Ruth-
erford took kodaks on the ship.
April 18. -- Sea not rough. No symptoms of nausea.
Read in Philadelphia Inquirer of 17th a good editorial quoting
and commending my nihilistic paragraphs in the Loyal Legion
speech of the 16th. A majority of the passengers do not appear
at meals. I am able to appear at all; not entirely well but when
engaged in talking do not notice any sickness. Made acquain-
tance of Howard Sherman, of New Haven, an agreeable man of
perhaps my age; with Carr, of Chicago, and others. At tea felt
some uneasiness and went to bed early. Fanny sick. When I
told her I did not suffer, she kissed me saying, "You scorpion!"
April 20. Sunday.--At 5:30 A. M., Fanny and I, on invi-
tation of our generous and jovial captain, took our places with
him on the bridge as we entered the difficult and crooked pas-
sage into the harbor of the Bermuda Islands. Rocky and inter-
esting entrance. Coffee was ordered up for us, and we took in
scenery and coffee with great satisfaction.
566 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Soon a steam barge came alongside and a handsome young
lieutenant of the British navy said to me: "The Admiral sends
his compliments and says he wishes to do all he can to make
your visit to Bermuda agreeable. He places at your disposal
either a boat or a steam launch and crew during your stay in
Bermuda." I acknowledged the courtesy of Admiral Watson,
We soon got into the intricate channel. The colored pilots
pointed out the frequent shoals, easily seen by the color of the
water and the buoys constantly in view and near to each other.
As we passed this place, "Soncy," Fanny waved her handker-
chief. As we approached the landing we saw General Hastings
getting into a boat, with which he came out and took us ashore.
Then a rain-storm as we drove to "Soncy" forced us to take
refuge under the cedars. In a short time the sun came out.
What a paradise of a home we found Soncy to be. I wept to
think that Lucy never saw it. Nothing finer or lovelier was ever
seen in a dream. I found the most marked attentions from the
British navy and from General Newdigate, the governor, wait-
ing me in the way of invitations, etc., etc. My time will be fully
April 21. Monday. -- The attractions of this lovely place:--
Sufficiently diversified surface -- the highest point two hundred
feet; water views, combining all of the capital advantages, viz.,
river, lake, and ocean. No river in fact, nor lake; but the is-
lands, inlets, and projections, with the tide, give it all the views.
Flowers and beautiful shrubs everywhere; birds and fish and
sea things; enough forest, white cottages, old walls, winding
narrow roads, walled and with vines, blue skies and water; cli-
mate, never too hot nor too cold -- ranging in the whole year be-
tween fifty degrees and eighty-five degrees extreme; the rock-
bound coast facing the ocean on the north; the large proportion
of agreeable society people; no beggars, but all in comfortable
condition--without riches, without poverty; good soft water
collected on the white clean roofs, or on large spaces of rock
cleaned of the earth.
P. M. made pleasant calls on the governor, General Newdi-
PLEASANT DAYS IN BERMUDA 567
gate and Mrs. Newdigate, and on Admiral Watson and Mrs.
Watson and her fine daughter. Both gentlemen and ladies every
way agreeable and courteous.
The admiral told of two hundred cases of grippe on his ship
within three weeks. Also, of a Swedish ship too weak-handed
to go further en route from Jamaica to Sweden; same cause.
Today, ten months ago, the fatal stroke came to Lucy.
My room faces south or southeast. From the window at which
I am writing, I look out on a little lawn, with cedars and shrubs,
of an oval shape, with the blue water of the cove around its
curve and the main channel in plain sight half a mile away.
A very paradise! Oh, that the darling could have shared it
April 22. Tuesday.--We received many calls [yesterday]
in the afternoon and evening.
The rocky ways, fences, deep cuts -- all often clad with beauti-
ful vines, such as the acalypha [and] the hibiscus. Then many
fine trees, as the royal palms or granite palms or mountain cab-
bage palms, the screw palm or pandanus utilis; also the Pride of
Lunch 1 P. M. to 4 P. M. with Captain Kinahan at dockyard.
In the evening at a dance at the governor's, Lieutenant-
General Newdigate. Lively. Ladies fine-looking; the red jackets
gave life and style to the men. Left at ten. . . . A good day.
April 23. Wednesday. -- Emily [Mrs. Hastings] has a recep-
tion this afternoon to which many are invited. Captain Kinahan
sends the naval band. Others send flowers and all help is offered.
"What good neighbors we have !" she exclaims. Evidently these
Bermudians are a friendly folk; good people to live among.
What a delicious and stimulating climate! Can one take cold
in it? "One cannot get a cold in Bermuda," is my feeling.
The reception this afternoon passed off well. Weather good,
guests very numerous, very hearty and cordial; in manner not
unlike a gathering of Kentucky gentlemen and ladies. Many
Of course the officials and notabilities of the islands were
568 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
here. The governor and wife, the admiral, the bishop, the clergy,
April 24. Thursday. -- We had a beautiful day. The drive to
St. George's was most interesting; visited Tom Moore's cottage
-- a lovely nook, water views, rocks, trees, flowers. St. George's,
with narrow crooked streets, was like a Spanish town with
tumble-down decay in prominence. The old church, built in 1611-
20. A long and interesting [talk] with the police magistrate who
had to deal with the Rebels in 1861-65. All the offscourings
were in St. George's--blockade running, drinking, and rioting.
He took and has the evidence against Governor Blackburn, of
Kentucky, as to yellow fever garments collected to send to the
cities of the United States. His name is W. C. J. Hyland, St.
In the evening dined with Mrs. Eames at the Hamilton House,
Present: "My Lord" Bishop Llewellyn Jones and wife, Rev.
---- Jaines, Hon. ---- Darrell and wife, General Hastings and
wife, Fanny and self, and Mrs. ---- Eames. An agreeable,
chatty dinner party.
April 25. Friday.-At 9:30 A. M. went with the general, Emily,
Fanny, Miss Briggs, and the children to the Princess Hotel. Met
the slender American-looking lieutenant, with his steam launch
from the admiral, [and] taken to Admiral Watson's review.
Artillery, sailors, and marines reviewed and drilled. I was sa-
luted with twenty-one guns as I approached. Stood with Ad-
miral Watson and reviewed. Fine marching, drill, and firing.
A little lunch at Mrs. Kinahan's (the Meigs). Taken on the
Canada by Captain ----; then to the flag-ship. A formal lunch.
American flags; shown over the fine ship--old but good and effi-
cient. The life of her eight-inch guns two hundred and fifty
rounds. Afternoon, at Admiral Watson's "at home." With him
visited the Caves and home again at 5:30 P. M. A field day, in-
The flag-ship Bellerophon six thousand tons; cost two million
five hundred thousand dollars; six hundred and fifty men; thirty-
five years old, but fitted up in complete order and is again in
PLEASANT DAYS IN BERMUDA 569
fashion with rifled eight-inch guns and torpedo guns, breech-
April 26. Saturday.--I must make a list of officers and cit-
zens to be remembered. The courtesies extended to me, I can-
not return in kind. I may sometime be able to do something.
A lunch here at Soncy at 2 P. M. Present: Governor and Mrs.
Newdigate, Admiral and Mrs. Watson, and the family. Very
pleasant. Calls during the rest of the afternoon. At 7:30
dined with naval officers and their wives and daughters at
Admiral Watson's. Delightful. Talk, a little music, etc. The
admiral's beautiful daughter and Trowbridge together played the
piano. Home at 10:30 P. M.
April 27. Sunday.--Attended church at the soldiers' chapel
of Prospect Camp--well named; from it noble sea views. A
good sermon--only ten minutes--by Rev. E. H. Goodwin.
Major Matheson, chief engineer of the islands, was our escort
among the troops, barracks, kitchens, and forts. All interesting.
Thence to Mrs. Whitney's--widow. A fine home; a lunch
of course. Thence to the widow of the American consul, Mrs.
Allen. Both fine old homes. Mr. Whitney, a loyal American.
Two flagpoles -- one for the British -- one for the American. [He]
found the American was six inches shorter than the British;
took down the British and cut off eighteen inches! A handsome
home. Dined at Mrs. Allen's. Young Allen a go-ahead, money-
making American. Turtle (land) browses around the garden--
[weighs] twenty pounds. School of fish, lovely flowers, -- a
garden of performance. A good time. These islanders retain
the virtues and manners of the slave period. Very pleasant for
It would be lonely to be too long where only five thousand
whites live in half a township, and that spot seven hundred miles
from other people.
April 28. Monday.--We drove into Hamilton and selected
a few jewels and some photographs. Returning to Soncy, we
drove to Admiral Watson's. There, a party of about forty ladies
570 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
and gentlemen, chiefly of the navy, on the invitation of Captains
Dowding and Atkinson, embarked in the Supply for a sail to the
Caves and to St. George's. Rowboats and steam launches were
used to get on board. We found the vessel handsomely deco-
ated with flags for awnings, and a lunch. At the head of the
lunch table was a shield with the crest and motto used by Fanny
on her note paper -- the anvil and falcon, and the motto in Latin:
"He serves his party best, etc." The trip lasted until after 6
P. M., when we returned in General Hastings' carriage from the
admiral's to Soncy after a memorable day, with all things perfect.
The party embraced almost, no, all of the navy people we have
met, the governor and Mrs. Newdigate, and several Americans,
Mrs. Roberts, of Boston, and Miss Gardiner, her sister, etc. Hot-
test during the day 71 degrees.
April 29. Tuesday. -- Governor Newdigate sent his carriage
and the driver took us on the shore line through Hamilton and
along its busy wharf to the south and southwest and back by the
interior road for an hour and a half from 9 A. M. A beautiful
The best stone walls, and the most of them, in Bermuda.
More liquor in store and more bottles unbroken and broken in
sight, with the most liquor offered, and the fewest hard drinkers
I ever saw. The "tidiest" community in the world.
April 30. Wednesday. -- Went from my room ten steps to
the beautiful beach and had the best swim in the world with
General Hastings, Emily, and Fanny. Best of all swims.
In the afternoon Captain Dowding, in his steam launch,
brought the coat of arms and motto exhibited at lunch on the
Supply. It was left hung up in one of the chambers at Soncy,
to remain "until one of my sons calls for it."
May 1, 1890. Thursday. -- We quit today this lovely, sunny
island with its delicious climate, beautiful scenery, and, more
than all, its cultivated and friendly society. Our hosts have been
simply the perfection of kinsfolk and friends.
General and Emily with the lovely young folks, good-bye!
"May all good angels guard and keep your hearts from sorrows
PLEASANT DAYS IN BERMUDA 571
Admiral Watson sent his steam launch to put us on board the
Orinoco. Got on board in a heavy rain but comfortably. Cap-
tains Kinahan, Drury, and Dowding called to give good-bye.
Saluted us with flags and music as we passed the fleet. On
steamer found many acquaintances. Introduced to Colonel King
and wife, of Sherbrooke, Canada. Weather cleared off fine; a
May 3. Saturday.--Rougher during the night--but fair
this morning. Talked at length with Rev. Father Boyle, of Cres-
son, Pennsylvania--a Christian--on the subject of human
rights. My sort of Nihilist! A good day.
May 4. Sunday. -- We reached the dock about 1 P. M. One
hour was consumed in dealing with the custom house officers and
getting off to our hotel. I paid about six dollars duties on va-
rious articles; no doubt too much. But they were very polite
and accommodating, and the mistake, if any, was in my own
statement of articles dutiable.
May 5. Fifth Avenue Hotel. -- Today must see General Swayne
as to Captain Drury of H. M. S. Bellerophon and his due en-
tertainment in June. The courtesies and civilities shown to me
by the navy in Bermuda cannot be returned in full or in kind,
but I may do something. I must see Willam Henry Smith on the
The Slater trustees are Jesup, Dodge, Stewart, and Potter, of
New York, Slater, [the] Chief Justice, Colquitt, Broadus, Gil-
man, and myself (ten). A quorum, six. Dr. Haygood called
at 10 A. M. with W. H. Hickman of Atlanta, President of Clark
University, with whom I had a satisfactory interview on the
Slater work generally and especially on the situation at Clark,
and our experiment of a self-sustaining industrial school.
May 6. Tuesday.--I called on General Swayne and had a
very satisfactory interview touching civilities to be extended to
Captain Drury in June. I am to write to General Howard and
to Secretary Tracy to secure their cooperation with General
Swayne in extending courtesies to Captain Drury.
With Dr. Haygood went down to Wall street, 45-47, United
572 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
States Trust Company. The directors' room is very fine. Held
there our Slater meeting. Only three members present But
after some hesitation I succeeded in getting at business with
Stewart, Dodge, and self, trustees; Strong, clerk, and Haygood,
general agent. Colquitt came from Washington. All went off
well. Condition of schools and funds very encouraging. Ap-
propriated about seven thousand dollars. More than ever before.
May 8. Thursday. -- In the afternoon [yesterday] with Fran-
ces, I visited General Sherman and Carl Schurz. As we drew near
the home of General Sherman we saw men fixing flags at his
doorstep. When we reached the house it was explained that
about five hundred school children with their teachers were to
pass in review before the general. We found the general, Miss
Mary, Mrs. Thackara and her two children (grandchildren of
General Sherman) at home. The general at once, in his cordial
way, invited me to stand with him and receive the boys or rather
see them march in military array. This was done.
General Sherman told me of the excellent spirit of his boy,
the Catholic priest; of his cheerfulness, etc., but complained that
after he had spent thousands of dollars for his education they
[the Catholic Church] now took it all,--made him a teacher
with almost no salary and so practically confiscated him.
[Last night], after supper at the hotel, a committee, of which
General Burnett was chairman, from the Loyal Legion, called to
escort me to the Loyal Legion banquet. General Sherman came
to my room promptly on time and we went together to the Del-
monico's. At the table I sat at the right of the commander,
General Swayne, next on my right was General Sherman, then
General Carleton, and then the venerable General Green, the old-
est soldier in the United States army--about ninety. On the
left of Commander Swayne were General S. L. Woodford, Gen-
eral Keyes, etc. A full hall, splendid banquet.
General Woodford read a good paper on the attempts to re-
take Sumter;--the splendid heroism of Strong, Shaw, and oth-
ers. General Webb spoke. Commander Swayne's speeches were
excellent--a fine presiding officer. I made a "rattling speech,"
offhand and scattering, but it took the audience. Hardly ever
LOYAL LEGION BANQUET NEW YORK 573
have I been applauded with such enthusiasm. A gratifying suc-
cess! Home about 12:30. General Swayne is a treasure as
commander. So much depends on a good presiding officer.
We prepare to leave this evening. Our outing is fortunately
crowned and ended. Philadelphia, Bermuda, New York! I can-
not expect to see many--perhaps no other--such enjoyments.
Very glad Frances is with me.
Mem.: -- I ought to have taken her to the banquet as a looker-
on from the balcony facing the commander's table. I am carrying
out with Frances the wish of Lucy. It was her desire that Fran-
ces should have the advantage of sharing with me the attentions
I am receiving.
The Mohonk Conference is a tentative effort whose aim is to
reach the truth on the negro question and to assist in the forma-
tion of sound opinions among the people as to their duty on
the whole subject.
May 11. Sunday. -- "Home again" after the finest visit I ever
made, with the one sad drawback--Lucy was not with me!
General and Mrs. Hastings and their friends, the navy and army,
the civilians, officials and others, all did what was possible--and
how much was possible to them!--for our enjoyment and pleas-
It rained furiously as I came from Cleveland yesterday--es-
pecially at Sandusky. Old Spiegel is not yet in full glory but the
grass is lovely and the trees are rapidly putting on their richest
robes. How lovely all seems this morning! But I must shed a
few "natural tears."
May 14. Wednesday. -- I have received a paper from Hon-
orable John C. Covert, prepared by him for the Mohonk Confer-
ence. It strikes me as too exclusively political and partisan to
be useful in that body. I write to him about it:--
"It is masterly, considered as a paper for the press, for the
Senate, or for the general platform. Our conference, as de-
signed by its friends, is for other purposes, and its discussions,
we hope, will proceed on other lines. We assume that the negro
problem, as a political question, will be amply considered by those
574 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
who on the one side and the other are charged with political ac-
"The conference, to consist mainly of educators, philanthro-
pists, and religious teachers, must deal with the subject from a
widely different standpoint. Three questions seem to be in
point:--1. What is the actual condition of the negro with
respect to intelligence, morality, and religion? 2. How can
public attention be attracted to the deplorable situation? 3. What
additional aid can be given and what new agencies and methods
can be employed to uplift the negro?
"In this work it is hoped that men of all sects and parties can
join. . . . Political discussion in the Conference is the rock
May 16. Friday.--This morning, at 10 A. M., I caught up
with my deferred correspondence. Perhaps one hundred letters
written in five days. The burden will now be less. I must
now write a short talk for Mohonk on the purpose of the Negro
Mrs. West and Mrs. Ross came up this afternoon to talk over
their "work," trying to rescue the bad boys of the town by gath-
ering them together in good quarters "to read, to play games, to
hear good talk,"--in short, as they phrase it, "to have good
influences around them from 7 to 9 P. M." Not much that is
practical and definite in their plan. They must try individual
work. The churches can do all that is possible in this direction;
without them, little will be done.
May 17, 1890.--Writing a few words for Mohonk Negro
Conference, I find myself using the word Christian. I am not
a subscriber to any creed. I belong to no church. But in a
sense, satisfactory to myself and believed by me to be important,
I try to be a Christian, or rather I want to be a Christian and to
help do Christian work.
May 19. -- Webb, who came Saturday, returned to Cleveland
this morning. Before he left we hung the old mirror of Captain
Matthew Scott and his wife, which Washington used, in the
ATTITUDE TOWARD RELIGION 575
There may be and probably is gross exaggeration in the
stories we hear of the "Voodoo" paganism which lurks, if
it does not prevail, among the negroes of the Black Belt in the
cotton and cane-raising districts of the South; but there is
enough of truth in the ignorance and superstition there found to
demand investigation and effort by those who believe that intelli-
gence and true religion are friendly to each other. There are
many good men who oppose National aid to education in the
South. But are any opposed to any education for the negro?
If not, let them unite in support of what philanthropists and the
churches are doing.
In the evening met at the Methodist Episcopal church a num-
ber of ladies and gentlemen to consider the effort of the Wo-
men's Christian Temperance Union to care for the boys of the
town. After discussion, it was ordered that a committee of five
be appointed by the chair to take charge of the whole subject,
and to take steps to secure manual training in the public schools,
day and evening, by conference with the school board and with
the Young Men's Christian Association and with the ladies of
[the] Women's Christian Temperance Union.
May 20. Tuesday.--In the evening with Frances went to
the Grand Army hall. She easily put herself in good relations
with "the sisters," as my Lucy always called her humble friends,
with whom she was such an angel. Frances has a good deal of
her mother's divine faculty of making others happy and being
herself happy in doing it.
May 21. Wednesday.--Eleven months ago the stroke came
to Lucy! What a long, long tract of time I have passed since
that awful day! But time and the good influences of a kind
Providence are healing the wound and I now meditate with a
sorrowful and tender but comforting feeling on the years I was
permitted to walk with this precious angel by my side. Blessed
I preach no new doctrine--nothing original. It is as old as
religion, that idleness is the friend of every vice and every crime
and that industry is the mother of every virtue. Show me a
young man who by his training is habitually addicted to idle-
576 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
ness, and I will show you a young man against whom are en-
listed all the rational chances in life. Show me a young man
whose education has formed [him] to habits of cheerful in-
dustry, and I will show you a young man in whose favor all the
fates are marshalled and bound to fight.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, May 21, 1890.
MY DEAR AUNTY DAVIS: -- Your anxiety about my health may
be relieved entirely. I was in excellent health when I went to Ber-
muda, and the delicious climate there and its pleasures of all
good kinds did not hurt. The fact of going to Bermuda fur-
nishes more than the usual foundation for the reporter's "im-
portant if true."
Eleven months ago today the stroke came to Lucy! Long sad
months! But time and the good influences of a kind Providence
are healing the wound and I now meditate with a sorrowful and
tender but comforting feeling on the years I was permitted to
walk with the precious angel by my side. Blessed memory --
With love to the doctor.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. E. G. DAVIS,
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, May 21, 1890.
MY DEAR MRS. HERRON:--Thanks, thanks for your letter of
welcome. Our visit and trip were every way delightful. The
weather in "the happy islands" was evenly cool--between 62
and 72 degrees -- with a bracing ocean breeze; fires every eve-
ning, and an overcoat often. Blue waters matching the blue sky,
flowers glorious, neatness, good order, hearty friendly people --
with the best traits of New England and Virginia mixed; a host
of navy and army people with nothing to do but to entertain--to
give receptions and reviews -- and evidently glad to have an ex-
cuse for doing it. I wish you could have been with us. It would
have fairly equalled the California pleasures and scenes.
TRUE FRIENDSHIP 577
Your drifting away from Helen is inevitable. There can be
no satisfactory relations between friends whose differences are
so decided and clean-cut on so many of the vitally interesting
topics. In such cases we cannot keep together if the questions
which are tabooed are many and interesting. I believe in the
friendship which Emerson describes in the finest, perhaps, of
his essays. "A friend is a person with whom I may be sincere.
Before him I may think aloud. . . . Almost every man we
meet requires some civility--requires to be humored; he has
some fame, some talent, some whim of religion or philanthropy
in his head that is not to be questioned, and spoils all conversa-
tion with him. But a friend is a sane man who exercises not my
ingenuity but me. My friend gives me entertainment without
requiring any stipulation on my part." "I am equally balked by
antagonism and compliance." I threw in that last sentence out
of all connection, happening to see it, because it seems to me that
it hits the only danger in our relation of friendship.
You see when I mount my hobby -- Emerson--away I am
carried. It rejoices me that you more and more see him as I
do. How he prepares one to meet the disappointments and griefs
of this mortal life. His writings, with me, seem to be religion.
They bring peace, consolation; that rest for the mind and heart
which we all long for -- content.
. . . The breakfast bell rings. We must take up another
essay. You say which.
With all good wishes. Sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. H. C. HERRON,
May 28. Wednesday. -- [At] 7 P. M. left Spiegel Grove with
William Henry Smith on the Lake Shore. At Aunty Austin's at
10:30 P. M. in Cleveland.
May 29. Thursday.--Mrs. Cleveland and Mrs. Huntington
with Auntie Austin. Dined with General Barnett and Myers at
the Hollenden. Met President Harrison at the train on his ar-
578 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
rival in Union Depot. Dined with [the] President [and] Vice-
President Morton at Mr. Eells'.
May 30. Friday.--Rode in carriage with [the] President,
Mr. Townsend, and Mr. Eells, with procession, to the dedication
of the Garfield Monument. A great throng. Much enthusiasm
for President Harrison. A fine day--two hundred thousand
people in sight. A successful time in all respects.
June 2. Monday.--With Mrs. Austin to the Mohonk Con-
ference. A fine day.
June 3. Tuesday. Lake Mohonk.--A good crowd. In the
evening, with Dr. Strieby, Mr. Houghton, Lyman Abbott, [and]
President Gates, of Rutgers College, at Mr. Smiley's room, talked
over business. All harmonious. Meeting opens tomorrow.
June 4. Wednesday. -- Fine morning. . . . We met in
our conference on the negro question in the parlor of the Mohonk
Lake House. The attendance was large. Not so many from the
South as was hoped for, but enough to leaven the lump.
Mr. A. K. Smiley opened the subject, after the usual morning
services -- Bible reading, prayer, and singing, -- with a few words
of explanation. Nominated me for president. I took the chair
after the election. Secretaries, a treasurer, and an executive com-
mittee on business and resolutions were appointed; after which
I read my inaugural, which was well received. A good meeting.
Paper read by Mr. Covert. Industrial education discussed. Mr.
[Albion W.] Tourgee and others spoke. -- Evening, a fine, hope-
ful paper by Mayo. Discussed. A good meeting.
June 5. Thursday. -- Our best meeting so far was the morn-
ing meeting of today. The Commissioner of Education, Mr.
Harris, discussed the question of illiteracy as the cause or ac-
companiment of crime, -- showing that the illiterates furnished
largely more than their share of criminals. Rev. Lyman Abbott
made an eloquent speech. His tribute to the Hayes Administra-
tion -- "the peacemaker's Administration" -- was most heartily
A young man from Talladega sought me out to tell of the
MOHONK NEGRO CONFERENCE 579
inspiration he received from seeing Mrs. Hayes when she was
introduced to the crowd at Bennington!
June 6. Friday. -- Mr. Woodworth, of Tougaloo University,
one of our clearest and most instructive talkers. Miss Emerson's
talk on "Homes of the Negroes" was capital. Nothing better.
The conference meetings increase in interest. This morning
the first speech was by Albion W. Tourgee. He is an orator --
pungent, dramatic, original, and daring. He rebuked the
churches, the North, the South, and stood for the negro. In a
quiet way, President White replied to him in an effective speech.
Mrs. Cheney, of Boston, spoke well, also Bishop Andrews, Gen-
eral Brinkerhoff, Mr. Glenn, of Baltimore, and others.
Whatever may be the results of our meeting with respect to
the negro race and its destiny, [I said in substance at the
conclusion of the conference], we are in no doubt as to our feel-
ings towards Mr. and Mrs. Smiley and towards each other. We
shall always recall this lovely place with pleasure. We shall
never forget the hours spent here nor the acquaintances and
friendships formed here or strengthened here. Whether what
we have said or done shall live or die, our impressions, our con-
victions are stronger than before, that the much injured race in
whose behalf we have met has large possibilities -- an important
future--a part to play, in the history of our American society.
It is said that this [race] has had no history. That is not
quite true. But true or not, we have heard enough to be assured
that the gifts required to take a place in history in large measure
belong to them. We were told of their success in weighty tables
of figures by Mr. Harris. President White told of the great
men he met in Santo Domingo, in Hayti, and other West Indian
islands. Let me add a small item to that shining list of prophetic
facts--pointing [to] the possible future of the race. I was a
few days ago in Bermuda. The entrance to its principal port
is a long, intricate, difficult, and dangerous passage. The man
[a negro] who has charge of the ship, taking it in and out, can
be no weakling.
June 7. Saturday.--With Mrs. Austin left beautiful Mo-
honk about 8:30 A. M. Were heartily saluted as we left and
580 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
drove on the opposite side of the lake from the hotel. Reached
Albany after noon. There Mrs. Austin took the cars for Sara-
toga, and I the Lake Shore for Cleveland.
June 10. Tuesday.--Today heard of the death of Carrie
Williams Little, the most intimate and prized of the school
friends of Lucy, and the wife of my friend and roommate at col-
lege, Dr. John A. Little. She died Sunday in San Francisco,
whither she had gone on account of serious sickness. A great
sufferer, and much crippled as with paralysis, her death relieves
her from a suffering life. A sound mind, a true good heart, an
excellent character, faithful always. Lucy and I were groom
and maid at the wedding of our friends; and when I gave the
ring to Lucy, which was in my portion of the bride's cake, I
meant that I was to be hers, if she was of the same mind, or
ever became so. She did not so understand it--but indications
were already warmly that way. So! the dear links that hold
me to the paradise of my life are parting one by one. I am
ready to go.
June 11. Wednesday.--Finished substantially the arrears of
my correspondence. I am now to prepare two speeches -- one for
Ottawa [Kansas], to the soldiers, one for the ladies of the Wo-
man's Home Missionary Society at Topeka. The topic of the
first, "The Nation's Debt to its Defenders." The other, "The
Home Missions Work." Couple it with home education or in-
[Delaware], June 17. -- Joined by Judge Lawrence [yesterday]
en route to Delaware to attend the meeting of trustees of Wes-
leyan. A hearty welcome by President Bashford and family.
In the evening heard Bennett, of Evanston, deliver a good ad-
dress. The most important question [before the trustees] is as
to building the college building--a chapel, drill hall, recitation
rooms, etc., etc. Not quite enough subscribed, I think, to justify
going on, but we will no doubt try it and can ultimately push it
June 18. Wednesday.--Visited the spring each morning be-
fore 6 A. M. This morning I also went to the cemetery where
GRANT'S JUDGMENT OF HAYES 581
father and mother are buried. It is improving. "Lorenzo
Berchard" is one of the names on our monument. All else well
Attended the funeral of Carrie Little yesterday afternoon.
Tea with President Merrick, Judge Lawrence, Dr. Trimble, and
General Godman. The three aged trustees are worth noticing.
All past eighty and on the board almost fifty years.
June 19. Thursday.--D. S. Van Slyke writes me to know
if I have become a convert to Nationalism (Los Angeles). I
"(Confidential.) I agree with you as to the evil, as to the
urgent necessity for a remedy, as to the importance of investiga-
tion; and as to the general fact, I hope, that all intelligent and
earnest agitation of the subject tends to good. No further."
Professor McCabe, at Delaware, told me this: Lieutenant
Clarence Sharpe of the army was with General Grant when the
dispatch came that General Hayes was nominated for President.
The general was smoking. Between puffs, he said: "General
Hayes is a steady man -- yes, he is a steady man. He will do."
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, July 19, 1890.
MY DEAR MRS. FREMONT:--Your noble husband was very
dear to me and to this town. He was especially admired
throughout our country for what he was and for what he did.
I deeply sympathize with you.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. JESSIE BENTON FREMONT,
June 22. Sunday. -- When the Government paid seven-thirty
interest in gold, it was not called charity. It was keeping faith
with the nation's creditors.
Somebody has started a paragraph in the newspapers that I
am a millionaire. There is nothing in it. It should read: "Gen-
eral Hayes is not a man of large wealth. He is in comfortable
circumstances; his boys are all earning their own living. He may
582 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
be worth fifteen or twenty per cent of the amount the effusive
reporter has given him."
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, June 22, 1890.
MY DEAR AUNTY DAVIS:--Your letter about the book was
sent to Webb. He has just returned it. You know I have com-
mittals and arrangements which prevent me from taking part
in such an enterprise as the one you suggest. It is possible that
hereafter I may be free to act, but at present it is as I thought
you understood. There is nothing that I can make public. Of
course, an "In Memoriam," such as I suppose was in your
thought, or rather in the contemplation of the society, is not in
the way of anything I have in mind. Very likely, the time may
come when I can throw open all the sources of information,
but at present I am complicated, as I intended to suggest to you
when we last met. I hope your memorial will be confined to
the scope suggested by Mrs. Hickman on page 16 of the eighth
annual report of your society.
The Mohonk meeting was very interesting. I will see that
you have an invitation to the next one also.
With regards to the doctor. Sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. ELIZA G. DAVIS,
[Columbus], June 24. Tuesday. -- Met yesterday with God-
frey, Wing, Dr. Schueller, Miller, and Massie, trustees, and
President Scott and Secretary Cope.
Only difference [was] on honorary degrees to four gentlemen.
I opposed to the practice. No objection to the men honored.
In the evening at the High Street Congregational Church.
Baker, of Cincinnati, made an offhand, so-so speech. Governor
Campbell was humorous. But through his remarks ran a vein,
wise and sagacious and full of hope. I was called out. De-
clined with a humorous reference to the heat.
Today met "same as before." Our honorary degrees prob-
ably illegal. Referred to attorney-general. Routine business.
ADDRESS AT OTTAWA, KANSAS 583
Death of Judge McCrary, Secretary of War in my Cabinet
[announced]. Sent condolence to family.
June 25. Wednesday. -- One year ago this morning my dar-
ling went to her rest! An "empty" year, as old Mr. Lyman
Beecher said of his great loss! I go tonight to Chicago.
June 26. Thursday.--Arrived at Chicago 7:30 A. M. Met
at the station with carriage by my friend Colonel H. C. Corbin.
Drove to his house and took breakfast with Mrs. Corbin and
the young folks.
Drove north with Colonel Corbin to the north end of Lincoln
Park. Saw the fine statue of Lincoln, the Indian group, etc.
Called on Mrs. Jewett. An agreeable meeting. Her father,
Judge Roundtree, on his death bed in Wisconsin, age eighty-five.
June 29. Sunday. -- Left Chicago Thursday night in a special
car, alone. At Kansas City, Friday morning, joined by General
Devol and others and soon en route to Ottawa.
[There] Governor George T. Anthony and others received
me. A good lunch (no, breakfast) about 11 A. M. A great
crowd in the beautiful park. The Chautauqua Assembly an at-
tractive affair. Here met General Alger [and] General Mc-
Cook (Alexander McD.). Both gentlemen and others spoke.
In the afternoon I spoke in the fine spacious auditorium for
an hour to a monster assembly. Hot but very agreeable. A
sympathetic and alive body of soldiers.
In the evening bid good-bye to these friendly people.
A fine tribute to Lucy! The whole audience rose in silence,
[and] stood a minute; voted a floral offering to me in honor
of her. -- Some thousands, men and women, shook hands with
Train to Kansas City, Governor Alger with me. Met at Kan-
sas City old comrades, Colonel Tomlinson, Captain Sperry, and
Reached Chicago yesterday at 11 A. M. Met by Colonel Cor-
bin. In old room on parlor floor at Grand Pacific. Dined with
Webb, Drake, General Alger, William Henry [Smith], and
Colonel Corbin. Reached Toledo, Birchard's, at eleven last
night. Home this evening.
584 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
July 1. Tuesday.--Worked hard all of the hot afternoon,
arranging papers, etc., etc., long neglected. It is easy for me
to work effectively when I perspire copiously, no matter how hot
it is. I think of myself in such cases as a salamander.
July 3. Thursday. -- Nine years ago yesterday Garfield was
shot by the assassin.
One of the fortunate facts in my career is that I never had
an overweening fondness for political life. My ambition for
station was always easily controlled. If the place came to me
it was welcome. But it never seemed to me worth seeking at
the cost of self-respect, of independence. My family were not
historic; they were well-to-do, did not hold or seek office. It
was easy for me to be contented in private life. An honor was
no honor to me, if obtained by my own seeking.
I am to speak at a pioneer meeting in Delaware the 25th.
I will take the book about Ephraim Cutler. This as a text on
pioneers. Who are pioneers? Read the life and adventures of
Ephraim Cutler. I am not old enough to be a pioneer of Dela-
ware. I am an early settler, an old settler. I settled here in
1822, October the fourth; not an old settler that morning--a
Two friendly comments recently pleased me: "You were the
most independent and least partisan of the Presidents elected
by a party." "You left your party stronger, and the country
more prosperous than any, except a very few of your predeces-
sors. Not more probably than two or three were equally
fortunate in this respect."
July 4, 1890. Friday. -- Independence Day. Read Depew's
fine speech at Chicago on the Columbus quadricentennial.
"Our national anthem?" Which? "Hail Columbia," "Star-
spangled Banner," or "America"?
A cool and delightful breeze all day, this Fourth of July! In
the afternoon drove with Mrs. Bristol, Miss Avery [of Cleveland,
visiting here], and Webb to the furniture works to see as to
the old sideboard sent by Uncle Austin Birchard to Cousin
Charlotte at Elyria, Ohio; taken by her, after the death of her
ATTITUDE 'OWARD OFFICE-SEEKING 585
husband, back to Vermont, and by her sent again to Ohio to
July 5. Saturday.--I read that General Cochran yesterday,
at the meeting of the Society of the Cincinnati, proposed a sus-
pension of the rules to elect Rutherford B. Hayes an honorary
member. There was objection. It was stated that he was
already an honorary member of the State Society of Penn-
sylvania, and the matter was dropped.
I would certainly appreciate the honor. My friend General
Cochran should perhaps have ascertained in advance as to the
disposition of those present. But it was an act of friendship, and
I must not criticize the manner of it. Thanks, General.
July 6. Sunday.--Lucy was a little above the average size
of American women, both in height and weight, viz., height,
five feet four and one-half inches; weight one hundred and
forty-five [pounds], probably. This in her prime--age forty
to forty-five. Her finest picture is the photograph by Sarony in
May 1877 when she was forty-five. She had been then the
mother of eight children, and her two eldest were both voters --
Read to Miss Avery the last volume of Howells, "The
Shadow of a Dream." It is certainly one of his best. It fully
sustains -- will enhance -- his reputation.
Reading also to myself George Alfred Townsend's "Mrs.
Reynolds and Alexander Hamilton." Some good pictures of
that interesting period in our history.
July 7. Monday. -- Finished reading "Ephraim Cutler" [and]
"Mrs. Reynolds and Alexander Hamilton" and began Butter-
field's last book, "The Girtys."
The Nationalist for July has a favorable notice of me under
the head, "The Function of an ex-President."
Our village tempest over the census does seem to develop
neglect in one ward, but not enough to help us out. In 1880
in Ohio there were less than four and one-half people to one
voter; to be exact 4.410 and a fraction, but call it four and one-
half. The vote in Fremont was in 1888 fifteen hundred and
586 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
thirty-eight. This would give a population of 6,867 in Fremont
in 1888 by the vote for President in that year.
The people who get up directories are responsible for the
extravagant estimates of population in advance of the census,
and for the disappointment since. Compare the present popula-
tion with what is given in the directories, and their exaggera-
tion everywhere will be apparent. If this is not conclusive, com-
pare the vote of the cities with the results of the census and be
July 10. Thursday. -- General Kirby, of Upper Sandusky, is
here today to investigate the complaints of the census, he being
in charge of this census district. I spent a few minutes with
him and the census men at his room in the Ball House. While
I was present every name claimed to be omitted was found duly
enumerated! The town has not grown as much as we supposed.
The census of 1880 was badly stuffed. And the growth of the
town is largely in suburbs which have not yet been annexed.
Our mistake has been in not annexing.
I drove with General Kirby around the town and brought him
up to Spiegel.
July 11. Friday.--"Men have invented a thousand ways of
producing wealth but not one for properly distributing it." I
don't know where the trouble is. If we once knew the trouble,
somebody would find the cure.
July 12. Saturday. -- During some days I have been chiefly
employed in securing a good jail. The new one will be after a
good model -- the Pickaway County jail. I succeeded in getting
the county officers and Horace Buckland, appointed by the court,
to postpone decision until the Board of State Charities were
consulted. General R. Brinkerhoff, chairman of the Board of
Charities, came yesterday. I conferred with him and the archi-
tect, Johnson. Today the whole affair seems agreed on.
Just received a dispatch from General Grosvenor saying, "I
have offered resolution to make you Manager of Soldiers'
Homes. Desire comes from soldiers. Do not decline."
Long since I resolved to decline all offices of honor or profit
MODEL JAIL FOR FREMONT 587
under Government. I am sorry he has offered it. I send these
GENERAL C. H. GROSVENOR,
Washington, D. C.
I appreciate your friendship in this affair. But I have not
time to serve if appointed. Please withdraw my name at once.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
July 13. Sunday. -- Read Parton's "Jefferson" on the ques-
tion of his share in the famous antislavery clause in the Ordi-
nance of 1787. It does not seem to be of [any sort]. He was
not a Member of Congress at the time the ordinance was under
consideration. He was in France. His ordinance of 1784 which
did not pass is a totally different affair. In some of its leading
features, e. g., in its division of the territory into ten States
with absurd names, it was frivolous, and on slavery it expressly
authorized it until 1800. Once introduced, fastened to the soil,
it would have required a conflict to get rid of it; with what re-
sult, we may conjecture. Even with the express prohibition,
there was a doubtful conflict in Indiana and Illinois.
July 15, 1890. -- Wrote and read as usual. "The Girtys," by
Butterfield, is a book of our local history; rather dismal. The
Girtys were the horror and dread of the pioneers--a bad lot.
They ought to be disposed of in a few sentences, not given a
book. Butterfield, the author, spends many words showing, or
rather asserting, the mistakes of Roosevelt and others.
July 16. Wednesday.--Grass and lawn never finer at this
season. With summer half gone the flowers and verdure are
springlike. . . . Two good women with a half a dozen or
more orphans from the Home for Soldiers' and Sailors'
Orphans at Xenia called, and were regaled with lemonade and
Callers out of curiosity seem on the increase. Probably
caused by the season for leisure travel.
July 17. Thursday.--I have today been turning over my
old scrap-books looking for items about the days of the old
588 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
pioneers. I find a good deal on the topic I was looking into,
but more on other points that interests me. I was delighted to
come upon pleasant sketches of Lucy. How they thrilled me!
I find one of my best little speeches was a five-minute talk,
full of quotations from Emerson, in welcome of the Sangerbund
at Music Hall in Cincinnati when I was governor [in] 1870.
As good a talk as any for the occasion was the speech at the
unveiling of our soldiers' monument in 1885 in Fort Stephenson
Park. In one talk I find our two perils--perils both of old-
world origin -- lawlessness, tending to anarchy, and caste, based
on plutocracy, tending to despotism, well expressed.
July 18. Friday. -- Examined for pioneer items two more
volumes of scrap-books. Found the scrap showing how Godkin
in the Nation advised that some Hayes elector should so cast
his vote as to prevent an election. This would result in the
election of Tilden by the House. [Godkin] charged by the
Tribune with advising Lowell so to vote. Godkin denies it.
The Tribune produces the article and other articles by General
Sickles, Bryant, etc.
A lovely, cool summer day. Drove in the evening. Saw the
new moon; talked of the planets. Why do not the schools teach
enough astronomy to turn out scholars with some ideas of it?
July 19. Saturday. -- Spent the first part of the forenoon in
considering the alarming amount of shortage found [in the bank]
each month for about twenty-nine months past, on an average
of ten days in each month -- aggregating about four thousand
dollars excess of shortage over overplus! My interest in the
bank is small--only five thousand dollars or less. It must be
crime. Carelesness or accident would hardly run so. It is over
one hundred and thirty dollars per month. I suggested a list
of the former two years; also a list of persons employed in the
bank. No one is suspected. But it must be thoroughly in-
vestigated. I never heard of it until yesterday. My own in-
terest is small but as a director I must see into it
MRS. HAYES'S DISTINCTIVE QUALITY 589
SPIEGEL GROVE, July 19, 1890.
MY FRIEND:--I mourn with you [the fire in the Associated
Press offices]. Money will build again, and better, but your
[manuscript] treasures! Can it be that they are gone? You
will bear it like a hero. I shall still hope that worse than the
worst has been told.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH
July 23. Wednesday. -- More than forty years ago I met at
the Sulphur Spring in Delaware one who was permitted while
she lived, by a gracious Providence, to be the good angel of my
life. This much may I not say of her? She had rare ad-
vantages of features and manners. But with her mind and
heart and soul, the homeliest face would have been radiantly
beautiful. Emerson says: "There is no beautifier of complexion,
or form, or behaviour like the wish to scatter joy and not pain
around us." That gift, that charm belonging to her was so
transcendent that it must be immortal.
SPIEGEL, July 23, 1890.
MY FRIEND:--You are a philosopher. I wrote you a short
note addressed to you at New York on hearing how you had
suffered. It is too bad. I am more disturbed about it than you
seem to be. It colors my sky. The days are clouded. . . .
My things here are more secure than you think. This room,
my den, has fireproof floor above and below it. Things can
in almost any case be hustled out before a fire could destroy
them. But I will think of it.
My kindest regards to Mrs. Smith.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
Lake Forest, Illinois.
590 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
July 27. Sunday. -- Thursday via Toledo, where I spent the
day, to Delaware. Entertained at pleasant home of Chauncey
Hills, whose wife was Margaret Williams, an older sister of
Carrie Little, Lucy's nearest friend from her school-days in
Delaware. He has six sons. I think all grown; several mar-
ried and quite a list of grandchildren. A noble family.
Friday, 25th, Judge Jones called early. He is [as] bright and
sparkling as ever. He took me in his buggy to see Mrs. Sophia
Wasson White. The doctor is quitting practice as fast as he can
and they live very quietly in their pleasant home on the old
place of her father across the street. She says my father died
in the same house where I was born, on William Street. We
(Judge Jones and I) . . . drove around town and finally
reached the [pioneer meeting] stand about one hundred and
fifty yards west of the spring on the main east and west walk.
President Merrick opened with prayer. Judge McElroy assisted
Colonel Van Deman, president of the society, and Chauncey
Hills, as secretary, in the business of the society. Rev. Ben-
jamin W. Childlaw, General John C. Lee, and myself were an-
nounced as the speakers after the basket lunch.
Met and shook hands with many old settlers. Sam Rheem,
who lived with us and loved me as a child of three, is now ninety
years old. He looks natural and well. I recognized him readily.
His mind is somewhat affected by time. He is "losing his wits,"
as Emerson once told me he was (1877). He asked me if [I]
belonged to the church, and on my reply in the negative, asked,
"Why don't you join?" Judge Jones said his action was strange
in 1876. His reason was, "Rutherford is too good a man; they
will murder him. I won't vote his life away."
After lunch, music [and] entertaining and appropriate
speeches; first by Rev. B. W. Childlaw and General Lee. I
then spoke at some length, apparently acceptably. The audience
grew so that when I closed there was a very large gathering
of old people and others. In the evening a reception at Mr.
Hills' was well attended. Many old friends and the sons and
grandsons and daughters and granddaughters of old friends
were present. . . .
I find that before the organization of Augusta County, Virginia,
PIONEER MEETING AT DELAWARE 591
in 1738, the western boundary of the new counties in the western
part of the State extended westward only to the passes or crest
of the mountains; that is, as far as settlements had gone and the
mountain range beyond them. But the grant of the English king
extended from the Atlantic coast "for two hundred miles north
and south from Point Comfort and up into the land throughout,
from sea to sea, west and northwest." It is true this charter
of 1609 was annulled upon a writ of quo warranto in 1624; but
Virginia still claimed the territory and in 1738, in creating
Augusta County, first extended a county to the western limits
of Virginia, thus including the whole of the old Northwest
Territory in the new county of Augusta. Afterwards, in 1769,
Botetourt County was created out of Augusta and included the
Northwest Territory. Delaware therefore was first in Augusta
County, Virginia, and afterwards in Botetourt.
August 1, 1890. Friday. -- Some one said to Simon Cameron:
"Your son Don has had fine advantages." "Yes," responded the
wise old man, "he has had more than his father, but there is
one supreme advantage that he has never enjoyed -- the stimulus
of poverty and hardship."
I suspect that the best book[s] of a religious sort lately are:
"Jesus of Nazareth," by John A. Broadus, [and] "The Man of
Galilee," by Atticus G. Haygood.
August 7. Thursday.--An agreeable household today. Wil-
liam Henry Smith, Walter Sherman, Mary, Birch, the boy,
nurse, and our usual family. Friend Smith began to read up
in my scrap-books and papers for a sketch, perhaps a biography
of Lucy. With about one hundred and thirty or forty scrap-
books, and perhaps two or three thousand letters to go over the
work is at the threshold rather appalling.
FREMONT, August 7, 1890.
MY DEAR SIR:--Your letter of the second instant is before
me. It seems to me probable that if I were actively engaged in
business, and on the spot, I would go into the enterprise as you
have done. I will not therefore criticize it. It is perhaps enough
592 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
simply to say, that if my property is increased in value, I do
not wish nor expect it to be done without bearing my share of
the expense either in land or cash. We shall have no disagree-
ment on that point. Not having been consulted on the ways and
means adopted, I may be reasonably excused for awaiting results,
or at least full information as to the situation, before advancing
land or cash.
With thanks for your attention in sending interesting docu-
ments relating to the business, I am with great respect,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HON. CLINTON MARKELL.
August 10. Sunday. -- The strike on the New York Central.
Depew in Europe. Cause, the discharge of men because they
belong to the Knights of Labor. The need for government pro-
tection involves the need of government control of railways.
Protection of unwise and unjust management will never do.
Afternoon, drove to the cemetery. No room for trees--I
mean, more trees--on my lot. I will plant only the mountain
holly from Admiral Ammen's place in Maryland. The brave
old admiral prepared the trees by taking them from the forest,
pruning them severely, and replanting and rerooting them on his
August 11. Monday. -- I must prepare to go to visit in
camp Webb and the Cleveland Troop and the artillery in the
grove near Huron, Sage's Grove. No wonder that in all time
the true soldier has inspired the best poetry, the finest fiction,
the finest history, and biography. Who is the true soldier? The
Bayard, the Philip Sidney, the Nelson, the Shaw of Fort Wag-
ner, the Lowell who died at Cedar Creek, McPherson at At-
lanta. And nearer home we find one who left us only today,
George Crook. Always amiable, unselfish, thoughtful of others,
friendly with all, sincere and truthful, brave-hearted in battle.
A favorite -- the final test -- most admired and best loved always
by good women, is the truly ideal soldier. Wars will remain
THE IDEAL SOLDIER 593
while human nature remains. I believe in my soul in co-
operation, in arbitration; but the soldier's occupation we cannot
say is gone until human nature is gone.
August 14. Thursday.--Home again after a pleasant visit
to Camp Hawkins, or rather to Webb and his favorite troop,
the First Cleveland Troop, camped in Sage's Grove, about two
miles east of Huron. With them are the companies of the First
Regiment of Artillery under Colonel Smithknight. Captain Gar-
retson commands the troop, an excellent officer, with Lieutenant
Myers first. Webb is much praised for energy and ability, is
indeed the man of all work in the troop; a fine horseman, a
splendid quartermaster, etc. . . . Camp life all came back
to me as it was twenty-nine years ago. Alas, Lucy could not
be with me to enjoy it! Drills, reviews, songs, "the sounds and
sights" of the camp once so dear to me. Two days of over-
flowing feelings--Crook, Comly, Lucy, Hastings, and the rest!
My old comrade Hawkins as adjutant-general was the ranking
officer of the camp. Webb in the charging was at the head of
SPIEGEL, August 15, 1890.
MY DEAR AUNTY: -- It delights me to hear that your "In Me-
moriam" is as it is. . . . I will be particularly pleased to see the
young portrait (sixteen years of age) of Lucy in your volume.
For the other there are two. I now prefer the narrow face. In
the affair of the Wesleyan "Memoriam," I chose the broader
face. It is good but not, I now think, the best. I send you a
specimen of the one I like best. Of course, you will select your
own preference. . . .
Yes, you dear woman, we never make enough of those we
love until it is too late!
Ever yours, sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
P. S.--My regards to the doctor. We (Fanny and I), will
hope to come for a week, the last week in September. We
594 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
probably must go to the hotel--at least the first half of our
stay. We go from Cincinnati direct to New York. -- H.
MRS. E. G. DAVIS,
August 18.--It is more often mentioned as time passes that
"Hayes is one of the few Presidents -- perhaps the only one --
whose Administration left his party stronger than it found it."
Again it is noticed that "Hayes is the only President who
adhered in practice to his principles on the subject of one term."
Not unpleasant reading.
August 19. Tuesday. -- To Napoleon. Reached there from
Toledo in forty-five minutes -- fast going -- and received by the
mayor and county officials, and by Mr. Justin H. Tyler, the lead-
ing lawyer of the county, Judge Haag, and others of both parties,
and taken to the good hotel of Mr. Blair. In the evening I met
many citizens of Napoleon of all parties.
August 20. Wednesday. -- The glad rain of yesterday cleared
the air and freshened all nature. I drove in the morning with
young Mr. Tyler up the river, east side; again down the river;
a lovely valley. About noon went to the fair ground. Dined
with the ladies of Napoleon. Nothing better done anywhere.
The meeting of pioneers and others was large. General Lee
spoke first. I closed with a rather singular enumeration of
the organized counties and States in which the territory now
embraced in Henry County was at different times included; the
men inhabiting the counties and the names of the counties
founding Henry, and the characters they were named after.
In the evening with Lee to Toledo and his home for the night
on Ashland Avenue.
August 24. Sunday.--I found a letter of Dr. Franklin to a
minister in New Jersey--liberal in tone, full of charity, pre-
ferring works to worship--copied in full by Uncle Birchard.
I read it this morning to Scott who is still in bed. He was sur-
prised to find a man so liberal in the time of Franklin.
REUNION OF TWENTY-THIRD 1890 595
For a week or more I have been dizzy; at times would stag-
ger. Dr. Hilbish says the heart is strong and sound, that the
difficulty is stomach dizziness. This may all be correct, it prob-
ably is; but it may be otherwise. Well, let the end come. The
charm of life left me when Lucy died. I believe in the moral
government of the universe. I trust and have faith in the power,
wisdom, and goodness of the Divine Eternal. Death must be
good for its victims. The living left behind must grieve, and
for a time seem to lose. But for those who depart the transi-
tion must be good and cannot be bad. What is universal, what
is allotted to all of God's highest creatures, is surely to promote
their welfare and happiness. It is not [to] be feared--to be
approached with dread.
Emerson says:--"What am I? What has my will done to
make me what I am? Nothing."
August 25. Monday.--At Port Clinton [en route to Lake-
side], met an officer or soldier of the Seventh Regiment, H. G.
Orton, now [of] Princeton, Missouri. He said he could not fail
to take my hand; that he introduced himself; that twenty-eight
years ago he was very happy to see me; never gladder to see
anybody than me at Carnifax, September 10, 1862, when I
rescued the prisoners of the Seventh who were in the shanties
wounded, etc., etc.
I reached Lakeside about 7:30 P. M., and was warmly wel-
comed by Major Bottsford and others who took my baggage and
we tramped merrily to the hotel.
August 26. Tuesday.--A good attendance of the comrades
[at the Twenty-third Reunion]. Many wives and daughters--
all happy, sympathetic, friendly. P. M. over to Kelly Island.
It rained (as usual on that trip) but we had a jovial party. In
the evening I made a talk on Fremont, Schenck, and Crook, our
old commanders, who had died during the last year. What a
favorite Crook is with all who served under him!
August 27. Wednesday.--Clear and cool. A large atten-
dance. Perhaps, as often happens, our last reunion is the best.
The touching incident of the day was the presentation
596 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
to me by Captain Ellen, in behalf of the regiment, of a hand-
somely framed testimonial to Mrs. Hayes. I replied in tears.
August 28. Thursday.--In the afternoon on steamer to
Cedar Point; thence in carriage to the Soldiers' Home. Tea
with General Force. Mrs. Horton [General Force's mother-in-
law], a cheerful old lady (eighty-five), very deaf but interesting
with her fine manners; Miss Pope, an interesting girl, who played
good "tunes" on the piano; Horton [and] young Pope. The
general (Pope) [brother-in-law of Mrs. Force] seems of sound
mind but he is badly paralyzed. Death is preferable. Oh, how
grateful I am that Lucy passed away so beautifully! -- Reached
Cleveland and 891 Prospect about 10:20 P. M.
August 29. Friday.--Met Dr. Haydn at his house. Talked
over the Medical College trouble. Decided in my own mind to
report in favor of "the university idea" in firm, decided terms,
with a few courteous words for the medical faculty to assure
them of all consideration for their wishes consistent with the
P. M. Meeting of trustees; elected Dr. Thwing the new presi-
dent. A fit man, "all around man," if the accounts given by all
are correct. I hope he will accept. I spoke of declining by
reason of other duties. Mr. Mather very earnestly requested
me to remain; promised to overlook absences, etc.
September 1. Monday. -- It is so easy to say no in a letter in
reply to a letter, that the average man is tempted to do it. In
all important cases face to face is the way to win.
Our last reunion at Lakeside, Bottsford says, is our best. It
seems perfect of its kind.
If I were called on to justify the eulogy of my friend Aaron
F. Perry, could I do it better than to say this (Mem.:--He said
it [my Administration] was "unique in its excellencies")?--
1. Hayes never sought the Presidency, nor any other office.
2. He announced himself in favor of one term on principle,
and having been elected, adhered to his convictions on this point.
3. He left his country at the close of his Administration in far
better condition than he found it at the beginning of his term.
4. His party, at the beginning of his term, was weak and out
MERITS OF ADMINISTRATION 597
of power in the House, the Senate, and with the Executive in
dispute. At the end of his term, all branches of the Government
were strongly held by his party.
Of what other President can this be said? Of how many
Presidents can it be said that they were equally fortunate?
September 2. Tuesday.--On Lucy's birthday anniversary,
Miss Kate S. Dalton of Fremont (August 28) read an excellent
paper. She is mistaken in one statement. She says: "By her
love for humanity, her unaffected simplicity, and the simple
power of goodness alone, she commands an enthusiasm that has
never been given to the most splendid achievements." All that
can be said of her goodness is true. But goodness alone would
not have authorized Miss Dalton to say, "she stands without a
peer." Her gifts, her powers, her talents in dealing with all
men and women, with all of God's creatures, were so great, that
to speak of her as a woman of genius does not seem extravagant
to those who knew her intimately. It was the union in her of
intellectual gifts and goodness, both in an extraordinary degree,
that made her the woman she was. Charms of face and person
must be added also.
I count one hundred and thirty-five volumes of scrap-books
kept from time to time during the last thirty or forty years;
chiefly during my Administration at Washington.
September 4. Thursday.--In the evening I heard from Mr.
Keeler that today in the post-office at Cincinnati my companion,
comrade, and friend, General Edward F. Noyes, died suddenly.
No particulars. General Noyes was associated with me in many
important things. He was a member of the Literary Club in
Cincinnati during a large part of the period of my membership;
a member of the bar with me in Cincinnati; an active and elo-
quent young Republican with me. One of the soldiers of the
Burnet Rifles of which I was first captain. He went into the
war in the Thirty-ninth Ohio; was awfully wounded. He suc-
ceeded me as governor of Ohio. He made the admirable and
effective speech nominating me for President at the Cincinnati
Convention. He, as a lawyer, represented me in Florida and
ably did his part in securing the vote of that State in the close
598 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
contest of 1876. He was appointed by me, without hint or sug-
gestion from him, Minister to France where he with signal
ability represented the Nation during my term.
One of the most affecting and effective war stories I ever
heard was told by him on my urgent suggestion, before the Ohio
Commandery of the Loyal Legion, viz., his experience when
wounded. His story of the event was thrilling. His coming home;
carried in an express wagon to the Wright residence on Elm
Street; helped out by chance bystanders; and the cutting off his
leg again and again to prevent death by mortification. His saying:
"Doctor, if you cut it off again, let it be just below my chin."
Comrade, friend, hail and farewell! I envy him his sudden
death, if it was without delay or pain. I will attend the funeral.
September 6. Saturday. -- To Cincinnati to attend the funeral
of General Noyes. On the train from Toledo down were a
number of agreeable men. General John W. Fuller, a division
commander of General Noyes when he was wounded, is intelli-
gent and entertaining. He was going to attend the funeral.
Townsend, of Lima, and his uncle from Malone, New York,
were also on the train. He spoke of a new book on the labor
and capital question by a man now in New York. He had
ordered it sent to me. We reached Cincinnati at 6 P. M. At
the Burnet House met General Force, Colonel Neil, Captain
Ewing, etc. In the evening called on Mrs. Davis. The doctor
and she are as usual. The "In Memoriam" of Lucy not yet
ready; a month or more before it will appear. No one at Her-
ron's; left my card.
September 7. Sunday. -- Called on Mrs. Noyes with Generals
Fuller [and] Force, Colonel Neil, etc. She bore up well. No
premonition, beyond the general feeling of the general that he
would go suddenly.
September 9. Tuesday.- This evening attended, on the urgent
request of Father Bauer, a banquet at Opera Hall to the State
Council of the Catholic Knights of America. Very agreeable.
Met Pater, of Hamilton, President State Council, and many
other intelligent laymen and a number of priests. My speech,
humorous, offhand, and in recognition of Catholic friends in
DEATH OF GENERAL NOYES 599
the war--Rosecrans, Scammon, etc. -- was exceedingly well re-
September 11. Thursday.--Since my speech before the
Catholic Knights I have thought of a better one. The bones of
it are: I am a Protestant, born a Protestant, expect to live a
Protestant, and shall probably die a Protestant. I can see in
the past and today faults in the Catholic Church, but I am grate-
ful for: -1. Its work in behalf of temperance. 2. Its ex-
ample in keeping together poor and rich, [its] care for the poor,
[its] influence with the poor. 3. For its treatment of the
blacks--of all the unfortunate races. A negro sat with us at
our banquet table. 4. For its fidelity in spite of party; nine-
teen out of twenty were against Lincoln, but Archbishop Pur-
cell strung the American flag, in the crisis of our fate, from the
top of the Cathedral in Cincinnati, April 15, 1861. The spire
was beautiful before; but the Catholic prelate made it radiant
with hope and glory for our country.
SPIEGEL, September 11, 1890.
MY FRIEND:--I am glad you are again sound enough for
the hard work you are always piling upon yourself, and that
good tidings reaches you from Mrs. Smith.
I send you another copy of Miss Kate S. Dalton's good article
about Mrs. Hayes. She is a hard-working school-teacher of
this town --retiring and unknown outside of a narrow circle--
of undoubted talents.
With best wishes,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
P. S. -- I go to West Virginia reunion next week at Parkers-
burg; to National Prison Congress, Cincinnati, the week after;
and the following week Peabody in New York; 13th and 16th
[of] October, Indianapolis and St. Louis, Loyal Legion. -- H.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH.
September 12. Friday. -- Busy all day with preparing
speeches for Prison Congress at Cincinnati and for Parkersburg
600 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
reunion of the Army of West Virginia. For exercise trimmed
the large hemlock near front entrance and other trees. Called
on Dudrow as to organizing the Fremont Improvement Society
after the model of Stockbridge.
The vertigo was more frequent and troublesome than usual
today. What it may mean, I am not confident. Much or little,
is the question. In either event I am content. Death must in
the long run be good. My children now all have fixed characters
and do not need me. They will lead, I am sure, reputable lives;
be useful and happy.
September 16. Tuesday. -- To Parkersburg. Met by William
Bentley, son of General Bentley; taken to residence of Mr. and
Mrs. Bentley. All very agreeable. About 11 drove out to the
"Big Tent." Very beautifully decorated. A lovely camp. The
rain passed away. Afternoon and evening very successful.
Gibson on hand, also good singing. This makes us safe. Good
bands and drum corps.
September 17. Wednesday.--Procession. General Kelley
and wife, Governor Fleming, General Powell, Duval, Devol,
Bottsford and wife, Major Skinner, and a host of the better
brethren. Made a successful speech. A great throng. In the
evening bid goodbye to our excellent hosts. To Warren House,
September 18. Thursday. -- To Columbus. With Governor
Campbell to State Fair. Mayor Bruck introduced me with pleas-
ant words about my "pure and wise Administration." I intro-
duced Governor Rusk, of Wisconsin, the Secretary of Agricul-
ture. He also was kindly. He said of me, "as a citizen who
stands higher in the hearts of the people than any other man
living." Words of abuse have turned to praise in my case very
largely. This is agreeable.
P. M. Rode back to the city with the agreeable governor,
and in the evening called on the Fullertons.
September 19. Friday. -- In Edward Taylor's office signed
bond and affidavit--justified for two hundred and fifty thou-
sand dollars in unincumbered real estate. At 10:30 [off] for
PEABODY BOARD MEETING 601
Toledo. General Jones, of Delaware, on train and had a most
entertaining time with him. Reached Toledo about 3:30 P. M.
Went out to Birchard's, found all well.
October 8. Wednesday. -- Home again direct from Vermont,
from Canaan, New York, the Burnham Industrial Farm, etc.
Staid September 22 at Cleveland. At Warren, the 23d, ad-
dressed the multitude at the dedication of the monument. The
next day to Cincinnati.
[The] 25th, National Prison Congress. Spoke in the evening
at the Odeon, Twelfth Street. A good attendance of members
of the congress; a slim attendance of Cincinnati people--very.
The next three days a fine attendance of prison people. Sunday
at Vine Street Congregational church. The pastor very energetic
and in full sympathy.
[The] 29th, Monday evening, with Frances to New York.
Wednesday, October 1, [the] meeting of Peabody Trust. The
talk of Senator Gibson and Mr. Courtenay on the policy of con-
centration, as they call it, shows a diversity of opinion in the
board. Many of us prefer one great institution at Nashville as
the final useful monument to Mr. Peabody. The gentlemen
named want to divide the fund. Many institutions--one in
each State. I think the States will establish each its own
normal school. Let these schools have an ideal, a model--the
great Normal College at Nashville.
In the evening the usual banquet. Frances looked well, and
was much praised for sweetness, vivacity, and character.
Mrs. Cleveland is amiable and attractive. Mrs. Curry, of
Virginia, was the admired and admirable lady of the evening.
A daughter of Mr. Henry was very handsome. Never so many
fine ladies present. Ex-President Cleveland was sensible and
friendly. He is sensitive still to the newspaper comments on his
Mr. Hilliard, of Atlanta, has written a book and will soon
Thursday, October 2, dined with Mead. Second meeting of
Peabody Fund. Adjourned until first Wednesday after first
Monday of October, 1891.
602 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Friday, October 3, via New Haven to Brattleboro. Met Char-
lotte [DeWitt] at station. With her to Brooks House. P. M.
3:30 drove to the old home, the grandfather's home, in West
Brattleboro. Mrs. Mary Hayes Bigelow has it for her summer
home. Winter etc., in New York.
Called on Sophia E. Smith, West Village. In the evening saw
John DeWitt at his home; a fine young fellow with wife and
Saturday [the] 4th, with Charlotte P. DeWitt on the narrow
gauge to Newfane, twelve miles northwest of Brattleboro.
At the Jail House with Mr. Underwood and daughters; a
good inn. Visited Mrs. Milom Davidson and met there Mr.
and Mrs. Gilbert Edgerton. Then the new Birchard home, build-
ing on the site of the burned house. Slept at the Jail Inn.
[My] birthday. Sixty-eight. A fine full day--foliage never
so rich before.
Drove to Townsend with Charlotte. Called on Rev. Clifford
Smith, son of cousin Sophia, a fine-looking, intelligent man,
wife and son. Left in a shower which soon held up. A delight-
Sunday, [the] 5th, at Newfane. Walked on narrow gauge be-
fore breakfast south past the two fine elms in Mr. Davidson's
pasture. At church, 2 P. M. Mr. Smith lacks fire; does not
put voice and vim into his delivery. Evening again at church
and heard Clifford Smith. Slept again at Jail Inn.
Monday, [the] 6th, left for Brattleboro, Springfield, and Burn-
ham Farm. Met at Canaan depot by Mr. William F. Round and
driven to the farm. About forty unmanageable boys. Seven
"brothers," volunteers who [serve] for five dollars a month,
board and clothing. Rise at 5:30 A. M.; do all sorts of farm
work; in barns, milking, stock, etc. Rich men pay one hundred
and fifty dollars per year for their sons and for two other poor
boys the same sum each. Like Metway, as it was. In the eve-
ning singing, etc., in chapel. Spoke to them eight minutes. A
October 7, Tuesday, [was] rainy. Up at the cottage with
Mrs. Round; called on her mother; and left Canaan for Albany
VISIT TO ANCESTRAL HOME 603
about 11 A. M. At Albany met Colonel Charles E. Felton, of
Chicago. To have the good company, changed hastily on to his,
the first train out. Travelled with him most pleasantly to Buf-
falo. Then took upper berth to Cleveland. Home at 9:30 this
morning. Spiegel looking lovely with its glorious fall colors.
Adda Huntington in charge. Good.
FREMONT, OHIO, October 9, 1890.
CHARLES R. MILLER, ESQUIRE,
I have just read your letter. The alleged interview* is a fab-
rication. I never said anything of the sort to anybody.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, October 9, 1890.
MY DEAR MADAM:--I was absent from home when I was
pained to hear of the death of your partiotic and able husband.
I pray that you and your stricken household may have the best
consolations Heaven bestows in such afflictions.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. BENJAMIN F. PEIXOTTO,
Brooklyn, New York.
October 10. Friday.--A long talk with Colonel Haynes, our
Member of Congress. He said many things it was very pleasant
to hear. His intercourse with men of all parties and sections
has been intimate at Washington. He dwelt on the good things
now heard at Washington on all sides as to my family, Mrs.
Hayes, my Administration, and myself.
General and Mrs. Force came on 2:30 P. M. train from
Sandusky. A pleasant ride all around town. In the evening
attended church meeting. Our new pastor was frank and bus-
*In Mansfield Herald, of October 3, criticizing the McKinley
604 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
inesslike. The congregation is demoralized on financial duties
by the shiftlessness of the last [pastor] (Mr. Mills) in all bus-
October 11. Saturday.--The funeral of Mrs. Phelps here
this morning. Rev. Alanson and Mrs. Phelps lived here (and
in this house when first built, for a short time), a few years.
Mrs. Phelps was a charming and excellent woman in her prime.
Afternoon, with General Force to the court-house to attend a
pioneer meeting. Well attended. General Buckland presided.
He called for talkers by township, as Rice, Riley, Ballville, etc.
Interesting and cheerful talks. I spoke of Lucy's ancestors,
father, etc. The battle of Ballville, I described. After a de-
lightful visit, General and Mrs. Force went home.
Our new pastor, Mr. Albritton, wife, and two sons came to
stay with us while the parsonage is getting ready for their oc-
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